Diaries of Private William George Dahl

Introduction

William and Charlotte Dahl, with their children Bill and Vera, circa 1911

Australia sent more than three hundred thousand troops to the First World War, a staggering 7% of the population. As the conflict worsened, volunteers included not only young men, but parents too. My great-grandfather was one of these; at the age of 38, he left his wife Charlotte ("Doll") and two young children William and Vera in Bendigo, to fight in the "war to end wars".

After the Gallipoli campaign the Australian Infantry Forces (AIF) had been sent to the Western Front. Battles of human attrition under the Allied command of General Douglas Haig resulted in the movements of front lines back and forth over only a dozen miles.

1916 saw the battle of the Somme across the chalky soils east of Amiens, and 1917 the battle of Passchendaele over the ridges east of Ypres. Thirty foot deep dugouts, machine gun posts, and tangles of barbed wire became a sodden hell under the artillery shells which numbed the mind and reddened the mud. The backdrop was the technologies of modern war: tanks and lethal gases. One in five Australians would never return.

In March 1918 the Germans launched Operation Michael which overran the Allied lines and approached Amiens, nearly separating the British and French armies. Not until August were British tanks supported by Australian and Canadian infantry able to effectively respond. Late September a major Allied offensive pushed the defending army back to the Hindenburg line. This led to the armistice and treaty which ended the German empire, but also underpinned the next and deadliest world war.

The following are my great-grandfather's diaries while serving with the AIF 3rd division during the latter half of the war. The first details his training with the 37th battalion 6th reinforcements and the 66th battalion (while it existed) in England in the first half of 1917. The second and third detail his participation in the actions in France from September 1917 through to April 1918, his hospitalization and convalescence, return to France with the Australian Employment Company in July 1918 through to September, and hospitalization back in England.

Like too many war diaries, this one ends abruptly. Although William survived the conflict, his poor health left him in hospital for many months. His lungs impaired from mining work had been further damaged by the damp conditions and noxious gas which characterized trench warfare, and he succumbed to tuberculosis on the medical ship returning to Australia.

These diaries were transcribed by his grandson Bill Dahl and granddaughter Ruth nee Dahl, and I have revised them to be browser-readable. There is some minor editing for readability, and background comments are mine. Diary images have been scanned by Steven Smith, William's great-grandson.

Glenn McIntosh 2002-2018
qb@meme.net.au

References

Keegan, John. The First World War. Hutchison: London, 1998.

Laffin, John. The Somme. Kangaroo Press: Sydney, 1999.

Laffin, John. Western Front 1917-1918: The Cost of Victory. Time-Life Books: North Sydney, 1988.

Travers, Richard. Diggers in France: Australian Soldiers on the Western Front. Australian Broadcasting Commission: Sydney, 2008.

Index

map of locations
William George Dahl, 1916

No 2800 - 37th Batn A.I.F.
Pte W. G. Dahl

W. G. Dahl
McDougall Road
Golden Gully
Bendigo
Victoria
Australia

Diary
commenced December 16th, 1916
on leaving Port Melb for England

[In July and August of 1916, Australia felt the loss of a significant proportion of its 60 thousand soldiers killed in the war, particularly at Fromelles and on a one mile front at Pozieres. At a referendum on October 31st, a government proposal for conscription was narrowly rejected. The issue caused heated debate and split the government. William enlisted two weeks later on the 16th of November, the day after Hughes was expelled from the Labor party.]

December 16th 1916 Port Melbourne
HMS Medic leaving Melbourne

Left Port Melb in HMS A7 (Medic) at noon. Doll, Willie, Vera, Lin at Pier. Paid 10/- before we reached the Heads to square up before leaving Aus. First night out all sleeping in hammocks on bottom deck with port holes open and sea came in and drenched us. Pte McNiff one of our numbers sent ashore “Measles” with picket. Sent letter to Doll. Up to 20th usual routine and Jerks. Seen whales and flying fish. Sea calm on 23rd. Death on board and witnessed my first burial at sea. The body carried from hospital ship up on Aft deck. All boat standing at attention while service was read by Chaplain and body weighted and wrapped in canvas and slid overboard while the Last Post was sounded on the bugle, the boat being stationary during the ceremony. It cast a gloom over the whole ship.

December 25th 1916 Indian Ocean

Usual days routine and put in wretched day. Had eggs for breakfast. Couldn’t eat as they were not cooked. In fact none of meals were. Gifts of

small book “Cheers Australians” and packet of cigarettes. Put afternoon in writing home. New Year’s day started sports on board. Jan 3rd seen boat going home late at night. Got out of bed to watch the lights. Our company won the tug of war comp. 10/- per man. On the evening of Friday 5th Jan we sighted a light which turned out to be the light house at Durban and all stood looking until we could see the lights of the City. We came to anchor at about 8.30pm and stayed out from Durban all night

January 6th 1917 Durban

The Pilot came out to see us at 6am and we started to move in getting alongside of the wharf at 8.30. The first impression of this place was that it was a very dirty one. The Natives came around the boat asking for pennies and as they were thrown down to them they crammed them in their mouth and looked for more. I seen one Nig [sic] put 24 in his mouth and still asked for more. Of course it was only […] we threw at them (spud, etc). There was a girl there, a

Ethel Campbell at Durban

millionaire’s daughter with baskets of fruit which she threw us as we pulled alongside. We went ashore at 11 O’clock and marched through the city and back to boat for dinner. About 4 miles and I was very hot. After dinner we were marched to City and dismissed. A party of our Coy had to do picket duty. Of course me included but I managed to have a look around on that and the two succeeding days. My impressions of Durban were a very pretty and clean City surrounded by some beautifull scenery and hilly country. The entrance to the harbour being very pretty. It is about 150 yards wide with a wall on each side there’s a high hill with a light house on top and with all the green scrub looks very nice. Some good postcards of this view. The Natives for most part are dirty. The women’s, and some cases, only garments is a blanket from neck to knees. They wear ornaments in ears, nose, on arms and toes, and, they as well carry baskets of fruit on their heads

and follow a route march to sell. The fruits are bananas, Mangoes 3d doz and mandarines 3d doz, Pineapples 3d and cocoanuts 3d each. The Native police dress in blue nickers and tunic and cap and no boots. They carry a staff like a pick handle. The Kaffir [sic] boys do the housework, and boys, girls and women work in the fields. Of an evening some of the Natives used to dress tip-top men in flannels and women in silks but neither wore boots. These were the better class and the crook women. The chief mode of traffic about City was “Ricksha” and the Boys that pull them work hard. They decorate themselves up in all sort of head gear and bright coloured things around them and are bare about arms and legs and have designs painted on them. And they jump about and cut all sorts of capers to show their strength and activity to induce one to ride in their Ricksha at a cost of about 3d per mile. And they run at a fair pace with a load. The people of Durban treated us as they treat all soldiers very well. There were two Huts in the centre of City - YMCA where at any time we could go and have a rest, write or get a feed Tea

Coffee or Cocoa, sandwiches, cake, boiled eggs 1d each and fruit salad free. At the Westley hall when one went there a cup of tea and tomato san was brought to you free. And there was always entertainment going on at both places. The Authorities placed the Electric trams at our disposal and we could ride anywhere on them free and we took full advantage of them to see the places of interest. the best being along the Musgrann Road route a circular line about 6 miles long. It wound around the hill through what I suppose was the Aristocratic part. All the houses were Bungalow style with red tile roofs. The sides of the road was lined with trees with a pretty red bloom and looked well although we were too late to see them at their best. The private grounds have beautiful gardens, lawns, statuary and conservatories, and soldiers are invited in. The view from top of this hill is splendid with all the red tile roofs and the racecourse at bottom, then the City with beach and lighthouse and ocean background.

Then we came to the zoo The gardens etc were lovely but the collection of annuals was nothing to rave over. We next went the Umbilo road this was around the bay, and the sides of the road in most places was thick with trees with leaves like the silver wattle, and they were covered with a thick creeper. Out at end of track there was a large nursery with some lovely blooms and a lot of lovely ferns. Along the route the mangoes are growing wild. These are about the size and shape of a big lemon and taste something like a rock melon. We next took the Buliver Park tram but were disappointed as we expected to see a good garden. No but there was only a big park that couldn’t come up to the reserve. This district was occupied by the middle class people. We the took the Beach tram and what a pretty sight it was there with all the places of amusement etc. One thing that I liked was a paddling pond built on the Esplanade of rock and sand on the bottom.

There was caves and grottos build in and it looked well. The Beach appointments reminded me of St Kilda. Altogether we spent a good time here. The population is 30,000 whites and 9000 black. Sent letter to Doll, Mother Lin, G Hay, Maude, Aunt Sarah, Curnow and Mick. We left Durban on Tuesday Jan 9th at 12.00am in lovely weather and after three days sail around the coast and sighting one boat. We reached Cape Town on Friday Jan 12th early morning The clouds were half way down Table Mount so we couldn’t see it too clearly. Cape Town is built at the foot of the mount which rises so sheer that one wonders it doesn’t fall over and bury the City. It is very bare and looks mostly rock. We got alongside the wharf at 8am and it wasn’t until 1.30pm that we got off the boat and marched into the City and dismissed at 2.30. The road from the dock to the City

is fairly wide and dirty. There’s a ragtime railway runs along (open) and a little way down from the boat there’s a platform built on the side of the road. We were warned before getting off the boat about going near the immoral part of the place as it was particularly hot. Well when we were dismissed in a garden and my mate A. McIntosh went out to the “Castle” a fortified barracks but couldn’t see through it. We picked up a mate of Mac’s and went with him to his house, a Mr Williamson. From there to the estate of Mr Cecil Rhodes. This was a beautiful place. Approaching it from the road we went through a long Avenue of Oak trees at the end of which we came to a beautiful garden of all the blooms out. One part in particular ½ acre area was nothing but Hydrangea in full bloom. The house itself is of the Bungalow style containing about 40 rooms all well

furnished and I wish I could describe it as it should be. The walls and floor were all oak and most of the furniture also. In the hallway relics of the different wars connected with the history of S. Africa’s events. A dirty and stained flag that was carried from Cape Town to Cairo in the early wars. I handled a walking stick that belonged to General Botha. There was also a novel clock, it told the Month, day, date, and time. Also gave the time of Sun and Moon rise, and set and indicated the temperature and weather, and it stood about 10ft high. In the billiard room the walls were hung with old rich Dutch Tapestry and there were also a lot of curios in here. The bed rooms were furnished in keeping with the rest of the place with beds of oak and quaint chests of drawers with several drawers. The bath room walls floor ceiling were all marble and the back wall of one of the upstairs rooms was of oak frames with panes of glass 6" squares

let in thus making the wall one big window. In most of the rooms we would sink in the carpets and the others just the plain oak floor. We went from the house along Avenues of Popular, Oak, Acorn and Silver leaf trees to the Zoo which was equal to the one at Durban. From there on to the Monument erected in memory of the late Mr Cecil Rhodes. This was a splendid piece of work covering about ½ acre of ground and stands 60ft high and all granite. From the foundation there are 14 steps up to the 1st level and there’s a big statue of a man on horseback then from there there’s four more lots of steps leading up to the place the pillars start. From there are about 40 of these supporting the top from which we got a splendid view. There was a three times life size statue in bronze of the late owner. We left by another entrance and got back to friends place at 6.45 and sat down to the best feed I’ve

Cape Town from the harbour

had since leaving home and after a long talk of Bendigo and Bendigonians left for the City loaded with fruit and books. We reached City by train at 10pm and as we had to leave for the boat at 10.30 we didn’t see much of the place but what we did see of some of our lads was enough to make one ashamed of the uniform he was to wear when they were wearing the same. We left the wharf the next morning and anchored out in the bay for three days so had ample time to view the Mount from distance and beach about 1 mile away. There’s very little of the beach given up for pleasure resort. Mostly taken up with wharfs for shipping. At the bottom of City’s principal St. there’s a lovely pier. There are three Mountains Devil’s Peak on the left, Table Mount with its long flat top, and Lions head. Further to the right are some smaller ones known as the 12 Apostles. I believe there was a line running out to Camp bay along which

there was some beautiful scenery. I couldn’t make this trip as we couldn’t go ashore. We left Cape Town on Tuesday 16th at 1.45 accompanied by H.M. Cruiser “Cornwall” and 5 other Transports and while sailing out nearly every house in City was using a Hailograph apparatus and signalling to us but we couldn’t read their messages.

January 26th 1917 South Atlantic, equator

Up till today no break in the usual routine. Morning parade and afternoon sports on board. Another boat joined us the “Brontes” the others were “Berima”, “Osovar”, “Mendi”, “Kannilworth Castle” and “Pt Lyttleton”. So we were quite a fleet sailing in two lines with the Cruiser leading in the centre. Since leaving the Cape our tug a war team pulled a teampicked from the rest of ship (combined) and were defeated by 1 ½ inches and the 5/-. Bouts were introduced and any two lads who had an argument would put on the gloves and fight it out. The winner receiving 5/- and satisfaction.

Court of Neptune

There was also a singing competition 10/- each for 1st Sentimental and Comic and a prize of 2/6 for the worst item. 8 out of every 10 won the 2/6. On the morning of Friday 26th there was a Scotch concert on board in memory of Bobbie Burns and eulogy delivered by Mr Bean sec of the Y.M.C.A. and very interesting. The afternoon taken up by a Neptune court held similar to a court of injustice. A prisoner would be charged with a crime such as growing a ticklish Mo, etc and after a medical examination given a dose of medicine all spit out. Then sentenced to a shave or haircut (burlesque) and ducked in a canvass of water this was for the benefit of those crossing the line for the 1st time. After the court all went mad (water) and if any one had any dry clothes on that was a sign for a ducking no one was spared. The Chaplain fared the same as the rest of us. A lot let their clothes dry on them. (colds).

January 27th 1917 South Atlantic

Morning concert A.N.A. It rained all

last night and continued all day very heavy and as we can’t always get fresh water I stripped to my pants and washed my clothes on the deck in the rainwater. my pants I soaped and rubbed well and then slid up and down the deck until they are clean. Having a shower at same time. I was warm in spite of the rain .

Sunday January 28th 1917 South Atlantic

Rained all night. Slept on deck wrapped in waterproof sheet etc. Cloudy but no rain during day and after Church parade sighted a boat going SW a long way off.

January 29th 1917 Freetown

Sighted land at 7am and at 10.15am arrived at anchor in harbour of Freetown, Sierra Leone. The entrance to the Harbour is about 5 miles from point to point with a hill on South point running down to water’s edge and the North point which is rather pretty has a lighthouse and a nice sandy beach and behind a background of tropical

foliage Palms, Banana trees etc. This stretches around the beach about 4 miles to the edge of the Town. On the hill behind this is a big gun which commands the entrance and after it is fired disappears from sight as we seen it as once during the time we were anchored here. On another hill nearer the Town we could see a big camp. The Town itself we couldn’t see much of as we were about 2 miles out. But it didn’t look any way inviting. There are no wharfs here and all boats have to anchor out. The pilot boat was a ragtime affair. It comes out to mark the channel and when it flys all the signal flags one can’t see any boat. The Harbour is circular only wanting to close in the entrance to complete circle. There are several Battle ships and cruisers here the HMS Sutley and a French Battleship “Alebar” and armoured Cruisers “Highflyer”, “Swiftsure”, “King Alfred”, “Kent” and “Donegall”.

The Natives used to bring boat loads of fruit etc out from the Town and do a big trade with the boys. Bananas or Plantan as they are called from 1/-doz, oranges 6d doz limes 2d and cocoanuts 3d each. We could also get Leopard and Lion skin dressed for 10/- each but it wasn’t safe to get as there are such a lot of rogues on board. Another class of Natives used to come out to the boat in canoes about 12ft long pointed both and about 3ft at widest part. They were cut out of the solid tree (Loquat) all in one piece. The Natives copper coloured sit or kneel and only use a paddle each side alternately and they go at a good pace. They dress real well considering the heat, wearing a hat and a smile. One of them used to overdress as he wore a loin cloth. The heat is solid. (to go down on our deck is like going down to a furnace). These crowd are very dirty in their habits. They pick the bread and scraps of meat out of the water after it has been through the slop shoot and eat it and they

do anything for money. The water is always calm here. Just outside the Harbour is a ship that’s been on the rocks since 1904 and it looks like as if it were riding at anchor and in good condition.

February 2nd 1917 Freetown

Morning parade as usual still very hot. Last night was the finale night of the competition took form of waltz and barn dance competition prizes of 1 £ for each. I didn’t compete. Sailed from Freetown at 2pm in lovely weather and clear day. We could still see the mountains of Freetown at dusk.

February 3rd 1917 North Atlantic

Morning lifeboat parade. Afternoon free. Seen several Porpoise.

Sunday February 4th 1917 North Atlantic

Church Parade and another funeral on other boat. Death after operation. Seen a big school of flying fish for 3 hours. We are now under light restrictions no light allowed after

sunset. Not allowed to smoke on deck.

February 5th 1917 North Atlantic

Morning and Afternoon drill from this on. Early morning seen boat going opposite direction.

February 6th 1917 North Atlantic

Two parades drill Another boat going opposite way and orders to wear life belts continually from this out. Very uncomfortable. At 4.30 on D deck a lecture on life in the Navy.

February 7th 1917 North Atlantic

There was nothing unusual. In afternoon parade Advised to get all our washing done at early convenience.

February 8th 1917 North Atlantic

Morning parade and afternoon on duty from 2 till 6 guarding universal kit bags which were brought up from the hold and stacked on our deck. I missed a mock trial which was held and I believe was very funny.

February 9th 1917 North Atlantic

On duties breaking up and burning cases as since leaving Cape none to be thrown over. Had 7 ½ hours of this and then got down the stoke hole and put in an interesting afternoon. There were 4 boilers with 2 furnaces each end to fire and each man has 5 fires to look after. I put in 3 hours firing and don’t think the work as hard as mining. The heat taken all round was not as bad as on the bottom deck. There was a concert given by Pioneers which I missed but was satisfied down below. A letter box placed on deck. Lecture by the Doc “Hornybrook”.

February 10th 1917 North Atlantic

Lecture last night on his experience in India and S Africa and very interesting. Put in another shift down stoke hole and afternoon got our kit bags and put all spare clothes in, out of our sea kits. Went into long trousers as it is colder. The dress since leaving Cape has been shoes, short pants, singlet and hat. I am sunburnt.

Sunday February 11th 1917 North Atlantic

Early morning sighted smoke of boats out East and there was a rumour of the destroyers coming out to meet us but we seen nothing of them. In evening we were having a sing song on our deck below, and we got an alarm and we had to get on deck ready for the boat and lifebelts.

February 12th Feb 1917 North Atlantic

On morning Parade we had to fix up our web equipment and the crew are fixing all the derricks on board and general clean up of the boat. Held a dance in the afternoon.

February 13th 1917 North Atlantic

Usual routine. Our web Eq examined. Afternoon a concert by 8/60th. Rotten. Brought letter up to date to Maude, Lin, Mick and Doll.

February 14th 1917 North Atlantic

Raining. Morning Parade. Afternoon concert by members of the Green room (Professionals) a good turn out especially an acrobatic turn.

The boats altered their positions sailing with the Cruisers going Zig Zag in front. At night lads playing tricks letting hammocks down etc.

February 15th 1917 North Atlantic

Real cold windy weather. No more drill for the trip. In morning we had an inspection of our kit bags and a lot of things that were missing came to light that had accidently got into the wrong bags. At night high pranks as usual. One chap Morton had his lip split and two teeth broken through putting his head in front of a boot. Another threw because we shaved his mo off - we were all reported.

February 16th 1917 North Atlantic

On first thing in morning we noticed that there was only one boat with us the Berima and at Dinner time a Destroyer “58” came alongside. This was about twice the length of an ordinary tug and stood about 8 feet out of the water and in moderately rough

water appeared to be awash. The funnel was only as high as our deck. It looked such an insignificant thing but it had speed and darted around and away from us like a motor bike around a steam roller. After noon seen another going out with a Collier and we were given our pay books and a days rations as we expect to be in port at any time.

February 17th 1917 Celtic Sea

Heavy fog. Our destroyer only 60 yards away and we could just distinguish her outline and we were just crawling along, the siren going every two minutes and every now and again we could see buoy that marked the channel. We could hear several other whistles quite close but couldn’t distinguish any boats. We handed our Blankets and Hammocks in

- after dinner the fog lifted a little and we came into the Harbour and anchored at Plymouth at 2 o’clock. The entrance here is about ½ mile. One point is the land a small hill. Ground and rock of a Grey colour. The other point is formed by a long Breakwater built out and a lighthouse on end of it. Just inside the wall is a circular fort built out of the water. It is built of stone (grey) with iron work around it. It’s about 20ft in diameter and has a searchlight and what looks like a gun mounted on it. Both commanding entrance. The hill at other end of Breakwater is also fortified. The Harbour “Plymouth Sound” is very pretty and dotted with small islands. There were a lot of boats in here. Transports and we counted 23 torpedo boats and destroyers, several mine sweepers, 1 submarine.

and in the distance what looked like a Seaplane. The place was very busy and the boats were so many ants. There was a lot of gulls flying around. We got news of an American liner being sunk on our track about 80 miles behind us. Also that it is reported in Aust that “Medic” was sunk. The City from the Harbour looked pretty all the big buildings of a grey colour same as natural ground. There’s a lighthouse built on beach and some pretty sights. Pen Post Cards.

Sunday February 18th 1917 Plymouth

Revellie at 4am and breakfast at 6am Prepare to dissembark at 8am 16 of us from same mess table had to parade at Ship hospital as one of the lads was in with Meningitis and we had to go into isolation. All the rest of the lads went ashore in launches. We had to climb over the side down a hanging ladder after all

the others had left (33/14, 6/37, 6/38, 12/29, 8/39, 8/58, 8/59, 8/60, Pioneers, ASC and Cycle corps) We were taken off in a dirty coal barge and went up to a place opposite Devonport We had to stay down amongst the coal dust most of the time and only allowed on the top when we passed the admiral of the Harbour’s dwelling, three old time battleships fastened together. Well we arrived at Torpoint a small village right on the water with old fashion houses with slate roofs overgrown with moss and got off the barge and had to march inland about 4 ½ miles through another small and old English village called “Antony” and on to the fort. This was through hilly country along a narrow winding road from which we got some fine panoramic views of the surrounding Country.

The roads are very narrow in this part (Cornwell) When marching along this road there’s no room for any one to pass. There’s a wall on each side of the road moss covered and overgrown with Ivy. We arrived at “Scraesdon Fort” at 3pm and had to erect tents etc and get our beds, tables and it was 5pm before we got any tucker. This fort was built in 1875 by convict labour and cost £2,000,000 for material alone. Inside the inner wall the area is about 3 ½ acres and oval shape the wall is about 50ft and 25 ft between. There are rooms built in between these walls and remainder filled in with earth thus giving a wall 25ft thick. There’s a slope outside this to another wall about 20ft high at the bottom of which (outside) runs a moat filled with

water 20ft wide. All underneath the inner walls were dungeons and there was also a passage leading right under the moat. At the gate there’s an old fashion drawbridge which when lifted closes the opening of the gateway and leaves the fort surrounded by water. There are some good views of the surrounding country from the top of these walls. The week that we were here was a rare holiday. We had one morning drill at the start. We didn’t have too much food but after we fared well. We were just settled comfortably when we had to move out. During the week we had I day duties, two football matches and altogether an easy time. Had swabs taken twice and I finished letter No 2 to Doll and Maude to be posted later. Things very dear here. Days rations = 5 ½ pe man.

February 24th 1917 Plymouth

Revellie at usual time 7am and got word to pack our kitbags ready to move off ½ hour after breakfast, and had just got them ready when we had to move off without breakfast. We had a forced march with full pack on. Crossed by ferry from Torpoint to Devonport and another rush of 1 ½ miles to the railway station only to miss our train. We then marched (ordinary) to another station and had to wait nearly an hour for another train. We were told off in squads for refreshments but there were only two girls there and by the time we got in our train had arrived and we had to board it. We were given a 7lb tin of bully beef and two loaves of bread between 8 of us and when the train started we had our first feed for the day 11.45am. I got

some good P.C. views of Plymouth at this station. We had a fast ride to Dinton a distance of 150 miles in 4 ½ hrs. through Cornwall and Devon with a stop at Exter for refreshments. Posted letters from here to Maude and Doll. We passed through some very pretty country, old buildings and paddocks divided by hedges and all irregular. Also High Viaducts and rivers etc at Samford Courtney. The railway is along the side of the hill with the Town down in a hollow and look pretty. When we arrived at Dinton we waited for a cart to take our kit bags etc but in vain We then went over to a hut for refreshments. Tea 2d and 4 biscuits 1d. Left our kits and started out on a 5 mile march to our camp in a drizzling rain. We passed 2

villages on the way, the first Fovant where there was a big camp. (all old buildings) and about 2 miles further on we reached our camp at 4pm wet cold and hungry We got a feed at the canteen and got our blankets and bed etc Then there was a feed ready at the cookhouses. We got 5 blankets a palliase of straw and have a coal stove going all night.

Sunday February 25th 1917 Fovant camp

Revellie at 7am breakfast 7.45 after that took a handcart and marched in to Fovant for our luggage but it hadn’t arrived so we had to go back empty handed. We got good meals today and in the afternoon posted letter No 8 to Doll and Lin also P.C. views of Fovant and Plymouth to Maude etc. Some of the lads walked to other camp at Hurdcot

where our company mates are and they brought our mail over. Received 1st letter and Paper from Doll and M

February 26th 1917 Fovant camp

Revellie at 5.30 breakfast at 6 to enable a Coy to get away on leave. Paraded to Headquarters and a party detailed to go to Dinton to see about kits. We had to hand in our pay books to be sent to London. We then had to go to Fovant again to meet the train at 12am but had to wait till 3pm. We put most of time in at YMCA alongside a stove and had refreshments. We got back to camp at 4.30 and had dinner and tea in one. After tea an aeroplane came into the camp and away again. It was a lot bigger that the one we seen in Bendigo. Put night in writing letters etc.

February 27th 1917 Fovant camp

After Breakfast fell in at 8.45 and drill and Jerks until 12.30 no Smok Oh After dinner at 1.45 fell in and from the parade ground went on route march through back of Swallow Cliffe circled round through Fovant and back to camp at 4.30 about 5 miles. After tea writing YMCA

February 28th 1917 Fovant camp

Both Morning and Afternoon Platoon drill on parade ground. After tea finished and posted letter No 2 to Doll, Sophia, Aunt Sarah, Mick, M and Claude.

March 1st 1917 Fovant camp

Morning usual Afternoon route march through Swallow Cliffe. An old church on side of road and ground right to foot path. No fence and graves alongside. Houses all thatched roofs an old historic

Pub. Bill Inn (Post C) and turned to left off road for Tilbury and went through ”Ansty ” another old Village in which an old church is turned into a blacksmith shop - also a cress pond. A nice warm day (unusual). We circled round and came back through Swallow Cliffe to camp. On arriving an inspection of feet. (Hot shower).

March 2nd 1917 Fovant camp

Usual 2 parades. Squad drill. Sore feet.

March 3nd 1917 Fovant camp

Parade sick strain tendon of heel. At dinner time the 38th and rest of 37th came into camp. Met Mac, Geo Mooney [Charlotte's cousin]. Went with Mac to Y.M.C.A. and got grabbed for picket at Bell Inn about ½ mile from camp. Got back at 9.30 Cold.

Sunday March 4th 1917 Fovant camp

Walking around camp on morning

and had to go on bike to Hurdcot with some papers. Got back in time for dinner. On roadside a very unique refreshment hut. An old railway carriage with wheels and undercarriage taken off and tables put in. In afternoon the only one of our hut left in camp. Writing. Snow.

March 5th 1917 Fovant camp

Joined our own company at drill and mess - all day. Snow fell during night while coming from Y.M.C.A. I got covered with it. On getting up it was thick on the ground and on window sills. Rained during day and had lecture on explosives. At night finished and posted letters and cards to Doll No 3, M, Bill, Claude, S.M. Card.

March 6th 1917 Fovant camp

Morning parade and 1 case of Mumps. Again in Isolation in our hut. Afternoon route

march. Evening in hut, meals and all there. Writing. All others received mail except me.

March 7th 1917 Fovant camp

Paraded sick bad cold. The weather is very cold and a biting wind blowing. We in our hut sat around stove all morning but had to go on parade in afternoon except one Lowers. He washed some clothes in afternoon while we were on route march (Ansty and Swallow Cliffe) and hung them on wire fence to dry. After tea he went to bring them in and they were frozen like boards (ironed). Letter No 3.

March 8th 1917 Fovant camp

Snow thick on ground and taps all frozen. Paraded with overcoats on although sun was shining. Snow fell (light) at 10am sun at same time. Doing Company drill.

Afternoon route march over hills behind the camp and had some rear guard work. A good view from top of hill. Some girls working on a hay stack, and seen site where Cromwell mounted a gun to blow up Kardour Castle. Evening received 3rd letter from Doll marked 5th - writing.

March 9th 1917 Fovant camp

On rising snow 9 inches in places on ground and still falling. No drill. Afternoon parade in huts with pay 1 £ and lectures. Received Bendigonians from home. Pay owing to date £2-5-6. Evening soup at 8 every evening. Writing posted card to Ev and letter to Tom B.

March 10th 1917 Fovant camp

Morning raining Mess duties no parade. Afternoon still raining done my washing and stayed in hut at night (cards and draughts).

Sunday March 11th 1917 Fovant camp

Morning raining. Stayed in hut writing. Also afternoon and night raining slight. Went to Forvant. First night away from camp and names taken out of Isolation

March 12th 1917 Fovant camp

Raining. Morning parade lecture on being out and drinking etc. Jerks. Afternoon route march to Swallow Cliff and came back, then to Forvant and back. Tea and shift quarters and a picket placed over Isolation lot.

March 13th 1917 Fovant camp

Paraded sick, bad cold and heel. In hut writing cards to Doll etc. Have to dine in big hut all together. Everything except 1 table taken out. Lads came in from long march to Kardour Castle 10 miles.

March 14th 1917 Fovant camp

Sick all day in hut. Light duties. Eat nothing

March 15th 1917 Fovant camp

Sick. Light duties

March 16th 1917 Fovant camp

Sick. Light duties cleaning up a dirty hut etc. eat plate of Porridge for the day.

March 17th 1917 Fovant camp

Parade for medicine. No breakfast. Have to drill though very weak. Finished at 12am. No dinner. Afternoon a football match 38th and 37th. Won by 38th easily. Had tea at YMCA. Bed early.

Sunday March 18th 1917 Fovant camp

No parade. Beautiful day. A game of soccer in afternoon. In hut.

March 19th 1917 Fovant camp

Morning parade. Sick parade. Improving. Drill. Afternoon raining In other hut lecture. Heard “Osovo” (mail) torpedoed but beached. One Corporal Low and S.C. lost stripes for breaking isolation. Capt Chap rev Tregear calls in every evening to see if any letters to post.

March 20th 1917 Fovant camp

Revellie at 7. Feeling better. Morning rain at parade. Went to hut while jerks in one of huts. Snow falling. Afternoon nice and warm. Route march. All well. Night in hut cards and draughts etc.

March 21st 1917 Fovant camp

Morning parade and Jerks. Snow falling near dinner time. Nice after Parade on parade ground. Heavy snow 3pm. 4pm Paid £1 leaving balance of £2.3.0. Evening writing and games.

March 22nd 1917 Fovant camp

First thing 6” snow on ground lovely day. Issued with cape. Received letter from Doll (missing one). Route march through Fovant along back road nearly to Tisbury and back to Camp (slushy roads). Heard that we go to Hurtcott Sat morn.

March 23rd 1917 Fovant camp

Fine morning but cold. Company drill in morning. Good meals. Afternoon extended order drill. After tea a parade to let us know that we had to shift to Fovant camp early in morning. Night packing up.

March 24th 1917 Fovant camp

Revellie at 6.30. prepare to move out. Every thing ready in our own lines. Parade 9am. Had to clean up other lines and left at 11.30 for Fovant. Got there and had dinner at 2pm ( pack and rifles). Then had to carry buckets, dishes etc ¾ mile. Tea and drew palliases and fill with straw. Made up bed and going to bed when I was detailed for Guard 6.30 till 8.30, 12.30pm till 2.30am, 6.30am - 8.30, 12.30 - 2.30pm

Sunday March 25th 1917 Fovant camp

Forvant. Camp. Morning misty cleared up after

dinner. Guarding camp water supply from which one gets a good view of Dinton down in hollow. Designs of different regimental badges cut out on side of hill in chalky soil to serve as landmarks and look very neat. Lots of birds (rooks) similar to, though smaller than our crow. Afternoon wrote cards to Doll. Evening got our corporal to parade us out and went to YMCA for 1 hour only.

March 26th 1917 Fovant camp

Parade as usual in snowstorm. Jerks and company drill. Mess Orderly No 7 hut. Good breakfast and dinner. Afternoon fatigue duty cleaning up huts. Snowing. Rest went route march through Dinton and a small village called Telford. A very pretty and ancient place. One cottage had 1680 on it and there was a place called Manor house where Chares 1st was said to have lived. Also a fine place like a

castle in a big park which were lawns and streams of water and a fine conservatory. On getting back we were told that on account of fresh cases the whole camp was under isolation for another 24 days. Wrote letter to Maude and went to bed very cold.

March 27th 1917 Fovant camp

Parade as usual and the whole Coy on Fatigue duty cleaning up huts and carrying spare blankets (high) tables, forms, etc which took full day. For breakfast porridge good and stew. Dinner Meat and Veg, and Plum pudding very good but not enough. A canteen opened in our lines and a very good stock kept. Sago 2d plate, coffee Biscuits 1d and are doing good trade with that as well as beer etc. Went up again in evening. Bed.

March 28th 1917 Fovant camp

Revellie as usual. I was hut orderly and didn’t go on parade untill 10.15. Morning bayonet drill. After a good dinner rifle drill. Weather cold. At 4.45 got word to go over to Officers Mess. Waiting and after late tea shifted all belongings there. Didn’t get finished and in bed untill 12pm.

March 29th 1917 Fovant camp

Got up at 6am to prepare dining room for breakfast. Now have same food as the Officers. The tea is enjoyable milk and sugar. Constant work but not hard. Five Officers to wait on. Supper at 9pm.

March 30th 1917 Fovant camp

Rise 6am. Lovely sunny day. Three bonza meals with tea in between. Finished at 7pm. Good job if only last. Got another chap

to help us. He looks after the scullery and bring in the coal etc. I’ve only got the Dining room and Officers cutlery etc to look after now. Nothing to do outside that. Went to bed at 10pm.

March 31st 1917 Fovant camp

Heard late last night about how lucky we were to get in safe to England (from reliable Authority) on the day we were supposed to arrive 13th. The cruiser got a wireless that Subs were about so that explained our waiting about and travelling very slow and in Zig Zag course. We went over 80 miles back on our course one night and on 13th there were seven German Submarines accounted for at and near Plymouth. 3 sunk with guns from the

land and 4 captured so they were after us allright and my informant said if I knew what he knew when we arrived we would have slept so comfortable and that American Boat I wrote about being torpedoed 80 miles behind us our crowd got her Wireless message S.O.S.

Sunday April 1st 1917 Fovant camp

Got up at 8am. Breakfast at 9. Usual routine. After noon done all my washing as it was a good opportunity and plenty boiling water. Dried at range.

April 2nd 1917 Fovant camp

Got up 6am. It was a very wild night wind and snow. The wind blew my window open and I got 1 inch of snow all over my bed before I noticed it. Had to shake it all off. The window of Dining

room also blew open and I had 3inch of snow to shift off the floor before breakfast. Seen 14 German Prisoners at work under escort. Got several badges. Didn’t get our lights on till after 9pm. Snowing.

April 3rd 1917 Fovant camp

Usual routine. 3 good meals. Went down to store and got belt for badges also buttons for tunic and Greatcoat. Seen Coy with gas helmets on. Snow 18in thick.

April 4th 1917 Fovant camp

Usual routine. During the night my window blew open and the snow came in the room and all over bed. Got a pass out and went down to YMCA. A concert on and couldn’t get in. Crowded. Came home and to bed.

April 5th 1917 Fovant camp

Raining. Heard that we all have to go to Lark Hill 18 mile march

to join our training Batt. Got paid 1 pound and got all washing done and dry ready to pack up. Order cancelled for 24 hours. Writing.

Good Friday April 6th 1917 Fovant camp

Good Friday got up to get breakfast ready for 9am. Received letter from Doll. After tea packed Kit bag ready to move off in the morning.

April 7th 1917 Fovant camp

Revellie at 6.30. Breakfast over and fall in at 8.30. Moved off for Lark Hill 18 miles at 9.30. Passed through Barford Hilton a fairly large town with good street and large shops etc about twice as big as Eaglehawk, South Newton and the outside of Salisbury and on through country to Lark Hill. Best weather we’ve had since we landed here. Bonza day. When coming

near the camp passed Stonehenge of Historic fame and seen eight aeroplanes. Arrived near 5 o’clock and got fixed up and bed.

Easter Sunday April 8th 1917 Lark Hill camp

Revellie at 7am but all slept in as clocks were put on an hour during night. Got up at 20 to 8 breakfast at 8. Church parade 10. Parade for inspection and lecture 11.45. after dinner free. Canteen and YMCA. Writing after tea Doll, Bill and Claude and went to bed .

April 9th 1917 Lark Hill camp

Revellie at 7 but we were up at 6.30 and got ready. 1st Parade at 8.30 went out on parade ground. A nice day but bitter cold wind blowing. Started on our musketry instruction and went to the miniature range a well setup one with imitation landscapes and a trench to fire from. After the elementary stage

is passed. dismiss at 12.30 and dinner. Afternoon parade at 1.30 and had a slight med examination (teeth and short arm) then a lecture on Saluting and discipline and a demonstration on putting web equipment together. After tea attended a musketry school and later went to YMCA to a concert. Fair. Had coffee and cake and came back to hut and to bed. (Snowing). Two letters from D.

April 10th 1917 Lark Hill camp

Revellie and morning parade as usual. Cold winds. Changing from one drill to another in the platoon from 37th to make composite squad. Had to parade at 6.30 to fit up our equipment. After visited the YMCA, Canteen and Church of E Inst. Very poor meal.

[The battle of Arras in the Somme had advanced the Allies quickly on April 9th, though with 20 thousand casualties just in the first two days. An attack at Bullecourt on the 11th was death for most of the Australian 4th Brigade, who had been trapped against uncut barbed wire in the snow.]

April 11th 1917 Lark Hill camp

At morning parade judging distances. Squad drill and Jerks afternoon. Squad A wild night (last) wind and rain. The parade ground

up to ankles in mud. Composite squad parade at 6.40pm received P.C. from Eve and dismissed at 7.15 and have to stay in camp as we might be called out at anytime with full marching kit. Pack filled with set of clothes, shaving kit etc and blanket and oilsheet around it. Stayed in hut.

April 12th 1917 Lark hill camp

Revellie as usual. Had to parade to dentist and there all morning. Teeth allright. Snow and later on sunshine (cold). Dinner. Afternoon parade for inspection then lecture on construction of trenches. After tea parade for boots. Went to Canteen and there had a big feed. Later on to Church of E Institute. Coffee and cakes. Card to Ev.,

April 13th 1917 Lark hill camp

Breakfast at 7am. Morning parade as usual. Jerks, squad drill and Musketry. Afternoon squad drill tea etc. Paraded 6.30 Issued with gloves later. Supper salmon in hut.

April 14th 1917 Lark hill camp

Morning parade erecting tents in readiness for troops coming in for Royal Review. Afternoon same, raining, finished early on account of rain. More to put up. After tea wrote to Aunt S. and went to YMCA to post. An entertainment. Conjuring, a ventriloquist and thought reading by “Eugeno” very good. Home to bed. Photo Stonehenge.

Sunday April 15th 1917 Lark hill camp

After breakfast on cook house fatigues. Clean up and swab out. Wheel in coal. At 11am an Aeroplane went wrong when up a good height and the poor chap was killed by falling to earth and machine smashed. Finished our work at 2.30, writing till tea and after haircut writing again to Sophie and Doll.

April 16th 1917 Lark hill camp

Morning and afternoon parades practice

review drill in readiness for Royal Review tomorrow. Had to come off parade and go to our hut at 2.30 on account of rain. Cleaned rifle and started writing untill tea which was early to allow a lot of troops that came in to get their tea. Received letters from Doll, Claude and Maude. Wrote card. Australia to Mother. Went to bed.

April 17th 1917 Lark hill camp

Revellie at 6am. 1st parade at 7.15 to prepare for the big review. We had lunch in haversack a big sano and a hard boiled egg, and marched through Bullford a big military Village connected with the railway. There’s a big convalesant hospital here. Also a big military camp with a lot of buildings like the Loco sheds I believe for the motor transport wagons as well as a big camp of huts. It’s a lot bigger than

King's review at Bulford

the camp at Lark Hill and I thought that a big camp. Well we waited on the big parade ground with long strings of troops marching on. At about 11am the King arrived and accompanied by several Officers inspected the troops (on horse back) a beautiful black. Then there was the march past which was a magnificent sight. First of all a Coy of cavalry followed by 3 companies of the cyclists, then a big lot of Field Artillery and then came the infantry or “mud trampers” followed by the Army service corps with their mule drawn wagons. I estimated all told on parade to be about 30,000 so you can form an ides of what a sight it was that’s not including a big

of soldiers “Tommies” a lot of Convalesants, a big lot of girls in uniform of Karki carrying Haversacks and a crowd of spectators from the neighbouring Towns. It was fine weather but very cold in the morn but the afternoon was actually warm. We got back to camp at 3.30 and had to fall in for guard at 4.30. I had a good frost on duty inside the guard room and was on from 8 till 10pm. Slept all night and on from 11am till 1pm next day.

April 18th 1917 Lark hill camp

Got up when revellie sounded at 7am and had to fall in for inspection (3 Min). after 1pm had to remain in guard room untill 4pm when next guard came on. Went to Durrington part of camp at night.

April 19th 1917 Lark Hill camp

Usual revellie and parade Bayonet and Company drill till dinner. After a route march to

Stonehenge back to camp and Paid. After tea went Durrington YMCA. Sent cards to Doll and Tad family. Nice warm day.
April 20th 1917 Lark Hill camp

Usual drill, Coy Jerks, musketry, dinner. After dentist as plate is chipped and cuts. Lovely day. Got back from dentist at 4pm so had an easy day. Evening at Durrington YMCA cocoa 1d chester 2d. sent P.C. to Mum and Claude.

April 21st 1917 Lark Hill camp

Revellie 6am. Breakfast at 7 and from parade ground went on route march through Durrington and Fighelton. Got back 12am dismissed. ([…] Motor Tractors). After dinner we had our railway tickets issued to us then free.

Sunday April 22nd 1917 Lark Hill camp

Revellie. No church parade, but medical exam and lecture on Women and drink while on leave. Dinner and afternoon cleaning up for leave. Evening at YMCA

April 23rd 1917 Lark Hill camp

Revellie 6am. Breakfast and left camp at 8am before rest of boys, walked into Amesbury 3 ½ miles and left by train 8.50. arrived Salisbury 9.25 and had an hour and half to wait for train so went around City. Visited the Cathedral which is a very beautiful building the inside being something magnificent with its beautiful charm and all along the sides of the building laid with monuments. On walking along one is walking over the vaults. The flags one walks on bearing inscriptions. Cannot fully describe the beauties of the building (splendid P.C. views of interior and exterior. Also had a look around the Town. Very narrow footpaths but some pretty places. The gateway with a huge gate was or is now closed. At a certain time of the night closes

the thoroughfare to the cathedral and the business places are on one side of it and the buildings on the other side are for the people who have at one time or another have been in the service of the cathedral. We got back to the station early and had refreshments. One thing that struck me was the number of lady officials and girls employed about the station. We caught train for Portsmouth at 10.48am. On the way passed through some pretty Country with quaint dwellings and ancient ruins. Also a big fort at Portsdowne. Seen women working in fields, also a lady hay inspector and finally arrived at Fratton at 1.30 and found Mac’s relatives who treated me cordially and asked us to stay there during our leave. An invitation which we gladly accepted. In afternoon we went for a tram ride to Portsmouth and seen the

Harbour and Lord Nelson’s flagship “Victory”. Then walked back through Portsmouth Town a very busy place with modern shops etc arriving back for tea at 6.30. Evening in company of Mrs Sambrook went to Kings theatre “Vaudeville” where a first class program was put on (it seemed strange coming out of there at 9pm). Walked through Southsea. home. Supper and bed 11pm.

April 24th 1917 Fratton

Got up and went for walk around part of Southsea, visited St Mary’s church and St George Hotel, an old historic place as Lord Nelson left here to go to Spain. “Trafalgar”. Got back at 9 for breakfast and went with Mac to visit his uncle and warmly welcomed. One part of Southsea filled in with the refuse of the town (splendid soil) is let by the Corporation at 1/- rd per year and many residents are cultivating small

holdings and growing vegetables as things are so expensive in that line. Potatoes are 1d each, peas and beans 1/- lb, bacon 3/- lb and a piece of roast about 4lb = 4/6. So how the poor live I don’t know. We arrived back for dinner at 12.30. After dinner went down to beach to floating bridge and from there along passed garrison to Clarence pier and along beautiful lawns (ladies mile) to South Parade pier. Some fine buildings along the sea front and splendid appointments at base of Pier at South Parade. Along the esplanade met a string of motor transport over 1 ½ mile long. Evening visited Easney, Copnor and Portsmouth but disappointed with places. 1st two not a bit interesting and everything restricted. Even had to have a permit to buy Photo material. Got home at 10pm. Supper and bed. (Seen Anchor of “Victory” described next leaf)

April 25th 1917 Fratton

Didn’t wake up untill a cup of tea was brought in to us 8am. Then got up for breakfast and went on tram to Palmerston Rd the Collins St of place and got things I wanted. Then a look around and back for dinner. Afternoon went for long tramway ride through Cosham. Passed Alexandra hospital, fortifications and through a few miles of country. Passed Portsdown hills lovely scenery and Picnic grounds and home again. After tea went Apollo theatre. At all places of entertainment men smoke all through the performance. Got home at 11.30 and supper

April 26th 1917 Fratton

Cup of tea in bed as usual then got up for Breakfast and morning spent in looking around. Went Canoe Lake a very pretty little place

with yachting and miniature boat racing an interesting pastime and swans on lake. A favourite picnic place. After dinner went out with Children down to Docks. Crossed in launch to Gosport a commercial town and came back another route. Passed Town Hall a nice building. There were also fine shops in this locality and the theatre’s Royal and Hippodrome. We arrived back for tea at 4.30 and caught train for Salisbury at 6pm arriving at 7.25 and as we had to wait untill 10.45 for train to Amesbury. We went for a walk around Salisbury and was fairly disgusted with the place at night. None of the shops were open and all was dark. Of course there were plenty of soldiers knocking about. However it saved us a few shillings as we intended to take a run in to there from camp but we won’t now. We got back

to our camp at 1am and bed.

April 27th 1917 Lark Hill camp

Had to get up at 6am (different to last couple of days) and put our equipment together and get ready for parade. We were marched on to Bull ring and heard that we were to move off to another camp as we were to help form another division. We then had to go back to our huts for a Kit inspection and while on this game a Coy that were on the “Ballarat” (torpedoed and sunk) came into camp. There were no lives lost but they all lost their kits and they did look breakups. Some in blues, others in khaki and there were shoes pants and no putties shorts without hats etc but they were all in good spirit. We were issued with our leather vests and then had to get a

blanket and pack our full packs ready for march and parade for inspection at 8pm Believe K. Mumford came in with the torpedoed crowd but haven’t seen him yet. They were close to Plymouth when they stopped it and the “Ballarat” was five hours afloat after she was struck and they ran her within 20 miles of Port before she went down. The troops were in the boats 1½ hours (the longest) before they were all picked up. Salisbury Cathedral the inside is very beautiful especially the part for the choir. The gateway showing behind the seats is lovely metal work and the oak work windows are something wonderful. The P.C. showing the Chapter house shows better than I can describe the beauties of the Oak carvings on the windows. Received letters from Doll and Alma and

Maude and P.C. (2) Eveline, card to Doll. Went to bed. at 10pm.

April 28th 1917 Lark Hill camp

Revellie 6.30am had to have our kit-bags packed and at place at top of lines at 7.15. Breakfast 7.30 Parade 8.30 ready to move off. Left at 9.30 went through Billford Village. The camp here is very large. We passed first building at 10.59 the last at 11.15. this is a permanent camp with two storey houses as barracks with married quarters for married men. At 12.10 we came to Tidworth another big permanent barrack. The whole ½ town taken up thus and some fine buildings there are there especially the Hospital. We arrived at our new camp at 3pm and it is only a new one. We are in tents 11 in each and it’s very crowded. We are only ½ mile from a little Village called

Ludgershall where we went after tea. We didn’t feel inclined to look around much as we were tired but we found a Café where we had a good feed eggs on toast, a pot of tea, bread and butter for 1 / 4. Came back to tent and went to bed.

Sunday April 29th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie at 7.30 but had to prick 2 big blisters on my feet before getting up. Breakfast at which was at 8am Church parade 9am after which we were formed up and were to form a new division (66th Battn). Dinner at 12.45 and Afternoon free. Writing to Doll and printing Photos. Night down at Ludgershall.

April 30th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie 6.30 fall in for Jerks 6.45 till 7.15 breakfast at 8 Parade 9 till 12. Dinner 12.45 parade 2pm route march through Ludgershall. Halted in field and laid down for 1 hour. 4pm marched back and then

fatigue duty carrying forms. Put night in writing Cards Doll and letter Maude.

May 1st 1917 Windmill hill camp

Morning parade as usual had 40 minutes smoke. Afternoon parade lying down untill 4pm then medic examination and tea after which had to parade with guard for inspection as I am on fatigue tomorrow. Rest of time writing and Printing Photos. Met Mannis and J. Doyle.

May 2nd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

On I.M. parade. had to report at 9.15 very little to do finished at 4 got paid. Wrote Doll.

May 3rd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Usual routine wrote Mother Salisbury letter card and M. Stayed in camp

May 4th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Usual routine company drill both parades.

Afternoon voted for Victorian Parliament [actually the federal election]. Evening practice cricket and later on went to Ludgershall

May 5th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Early morning instead of Jerks attended N.C.C. school here (Guard drill). Later usual parade took all morning to detail duties for night and next day. Had to parade 3.30. Received letters from Bill S. and R. H. McLeod and J. Williams from France. Had to remain in our lines all day and be in readiness to turn out at moment’s notice. A very windy and dusty day and had to turn out at at 7.30 as several tents were blown down and on retiring had to leave our clothes on. Turned out at 6am on

Sunday May 6th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

No Church parade. About 15 mins fixing tents. Afternoon went in to Tidworth, a picture

show and looked around Town. A nice compact town surrounded by hills so that the town is in a well sheltered valley. There is one principal street of shops quite up to date. Had a feed and came back to camp.

May 7th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

In morning attended N.C.C. School and went in 9 oclock parade. Afternoon a route march. Got back early and put in 1 hour drill. Went in to Tidworth for Photo material seen a look out build amongst some Fir trees By a wealthy man of Tidworth and owner of the Manor. Both places are now taken over by military authorities the look out, castle for signalling and the Manor for a hospital. The Soldier's Tea rooms is ahead of most of the YMCA. Had a ‘banquet’ and came home.

May 8th 1917 Windmill Hill camp
Morning School and 9 oclock parade practice at Squad drill. Afternoon route march

over the hills behind Tidworth and over the Downs about 6 miles night training. Photos (Aeroplane accident).

May 9th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Both morning parades as usual. Afternoon a route march through Ludgershall and along the road toward Andover and halted at as pretty a spot as I've seen here. A wood with Fir and Oak trees and with the new growth on the trees. Formed an avenue with different shades of green the ground strewn with wild violets daisies and Primroses and Ivy on trunks of the trees. Got back in good time and after tea wrote letters back to Ev.

May 10th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning Jerks. 2nd Parade Platoon and Coy drill. Afternoon fatigue fixing cricket pitch after tea wrote to Doll.

May 11th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning school. 2nd parade had a squad at drill. After dinner a very interesting lecture on V.D. then a march through Tidworth back over the Hills to Perham Downs through that camp and home. Evening writing to Maude, Alma and May.

May 12th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning squad drill practice at school. 2nd Parade n Dentist had impression taken for a lower plate. Cleaning up tent then a meeting to form a sports and Amusement committee. Afternoon a cricket match.

Sunday May 13th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church parade at 9.15am. afternoon taking photos and later went and seen cricket match. evening writing Portsmouth and Salisbury Letter cards to Maude and to Claude. Met Reg Williamson

May 14th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

In charge of Fatigue party for A.S.C. Went

to Tidworth got back at 11.45. had to report aft dinner but there was nothing for us to do so had rest of day off. Wrote letter C to Aunt S and evening went to Ludgershall a picture show 4d. had a cup of coffee and came home.

May 15th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Early morning school second parade didn’t go away. Cleaned up lines. Medical exam and issue of shortages. Afternoon paraded at Headquarters and were classified in 6th week of training. Stayed in camp

May 16th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade route march. Second, Jerks bayonet and Platoon drill. Afternoon care of arms Platoon and Section drill. After tea a cricket match. C.V.A. won by 18 runs. All good jobs in the ranks. Returned men in their place. Met G. Saunders.

May 17th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parades delayed through rain […] school has fallen through. Waiting out in rain for pay. Afternoon paid and went on Parade at 3:30 musketry till 8pm. AFter tea went into Ludgershall a picture show. Then home to bed. […] in tent.

Friday May 18th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning short march around parade musketry and […] had to come in early (rain). Afternoon musketry and a lecture on Bombs. Very interesting after tea writing letter to Doll.

Saturday May 19th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning Parade free after dinner went walking afternoon through Ludgershall on to Appleshaw. On the way went through a park and everything in bloom. It was very pretty. The villages is very pretty and there are some modern houses as well as old fashion places from there after in good […] and some Photos. we went on to

Weyhill and back to camp having gone about 8 miles all told.

Sunday May 20th Windmill Hill camp

Morning. Church parade. Afternoon wet. Stayed in tent writing a letter to Mick met G. Carne the Bendigo rifle shot also Young Fryburg of McCrae St. Late at night rained heavy and came through the tent.

May 21th Windmill Hill camp

Morning inclined to rain paraded in overalls. Very closer after dinner cleared up and we left our great coats in tent. Bayonet and musketry and bombing. After tea went to pictures. Got two letters from Doll.

May 22th Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade Tent Orderly second Parade. Musketry till 10:30 then Dentist till dinner time. Afternoon Musket Bayonet and Platoon drills after a […] writing P C to Doll. Stayed in camp. Secured two cards from Ev and letter from […].

May 23rd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning a muster parade. Told off as a bomber for our battalion. Second parade usual Musketry Jerks and Bombing. Afternoon Musketry Bayonet and platoon drill. After tea writing in Canteen. Feed and back to bed.

May 24th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning usual routine. Afternoon parade dentist and got full lower plate. Had to take them out in evening hurting. After tea went to pictures. Posted cards to Doll, Ev, Lin, M. and M. Sumbler. Had afternoon off and wrote them. Received book from Church

May 25th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning usual. Also 2nd Parade. Afternoon same. Ricked leg. Night canteen.

May 26th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Paraded sick. 2nd Parade usual musketry, Jerks and Bombing. After dinner received letter from Doll 2 and one from Mrs J. Gephart (Sis Rawnsley).

After tea went with Mac to Pictures.

Sunday May 27th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Early morning Parade to duties. Church parade, dinner, then free. Raining. Wrote to Doll and Sis Gephant (Rownsley). After tea wrote children and T. Hardiman.

May 28th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Usual day. Evening pictures.

May 29th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

1st Parade for exchange of boots not finished. Morning parade usual Musketry, Jerks and entanglements. After dinner Sports meeting Afternoon Parade Mus., Bayonet and extended Or. Drill. Issued with service rifles (7162). After tea writing and draughts in tent. Supper in canteen. Bed.

May 30th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

No early parade. 2nd Parade usual. All trained men went with full marching order on for an inspection to Bullford leaving

camp at about 11am accompanied by their field kitchen and transports etc. after dinner snap shot of our tent. Afternoon Parade. Went over to Perham to go through our bombing practice with live bombs. Got back late. After tea wrote M. Sumbler, Ev and Bella.

May 31st 1917 Windmill Hill camp

1st parade (tent orderly). 2nd Parade Musketry, Jerks and building sandbags. Dinner. Afternoon Parade Musketry then came in to get paid. After tea wrote Maude P.C. and L.C. Andover to Bill. Supper. Bed.

June 1st. 1917 1917 Windmill Hill camp

1st Parade roll call only. 2nd Parade usual routine. Afternoon Parade Musketry and two hours Bayonet. After tea writing in tent. Received parcel from Claude. Sardines, Salmon Paste, chewing gum and sweets.

June 2nd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

1st Parade as usual two hours bayonet.

Afternoon went out to Chute had picnic then back to Redenham YMCA a new place. Cocoa and cakes and back to camp at 9.30. Took a few snaps on the way.

Sunday June 3rd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church Parade and afternoon stayed in tent fixing photos and writing home. Had a game of draughts and bed.

June 4th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Usual routine all parades. Lovely weather. In evening Photos of Grs Saunders, Camp, Mac and in night sewing.

June 5th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Rain during night and no early parade. 2nd Parade shooting at miniature range. Afternoon parade usual. Night sewing and mending sox. Photos in camp.

June 6th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning march through Ludgershall. 2nd Parade usual. Afternoon Holiday

for Brigade sports. Very good. Aggregate cup won by 65th, 66th 2nd, 67th 3rd. Funniest item was the Mule race. They were very obstinate. Late for tea and went for tea at Ludgershall. Came back to an open air concert in the camp given by the Tidworth band and boys of the camp. Very good. Then to bed. Photos of Sports.

June 7th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning Parade as usual. Raining during night now very close. After breakfast went to Doctor and Paraded to Dentist as new lower plate don’t fit. Got it fixed up. After dinner went for medicine and no parade. Wrote Appleshaw cards to Doll and a nice cool day. after tea in tent writing M.S. and making up parcel for home.

June 8th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade tent orderly. 2nd Parade usual. Good dinner. Afternoon parade usual. Photo of Class bayonet fighting. After tea in camp writing. Posted parcel of Badges etc to

Doll. An Aeroplane the chap was a Marvel with flying side ways, upside down, looping the loop, straight up and to cap all came straight down, the machine spinning round as though it was beyond control and when he righted it the cheer from the camp was deafening. Write and posted Appleshaw Cards to Bill and Photos.

June 9th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Told off for escort to take a prisoner from the camp to Devizes. Left camp at 7.45 and arrived with prisoner at detention barracks at about 11 O’clock. We then went sight seeing around the place. The ones that interested us most were 1st St John’s church which was built in 1156 and it is famous in older times it was here that [Charles Wesley] sought safety while escaping from Devizes Castle and they tried to starve him out by surrounding the place but he escaped into Wales. He was a minister in Charles [George] III time. The walls have some fine tombstones let in, some bearing the

dates 1316 - 1346 and in the Burial ground amongst others there was a fine Monument erected in Memory of Tom Moore “Poet”. The next of interest and well worth seeing was the Kennet Canal used for carrying Corn etc from Devizes to Bristol about 40 miles instead of hauling around the road I would have liked to seen them working the Locks. These I believe are used to save the water as if allowed to run it wouldn’t be sufficient depth to float the Barges. The gates are locked and when sufficient water is in to float the Barge it is brought from one lock to another. We then made our way up to the Castle passing on the way a big Munition Factory which we were unfortunately too late to look over as it closed at 1pm. The Castle stands on the site of the former Devizes Castle which was famous for its strength and splendour. The present one has the same fame. It being prettily and strongly built with a splendid conservatory at the back. The Tower and walls are covered with creeper and the

whole is guarded by a wide moat filled with water. around the outside wall (3). A big convalescent hospital in which were a large number of Australians there is a pretty roadway leading away from here known as the (L)ushers walk. We went back to the Town passing a big permanent barracks. Tommies, and went to the Market place where several streets meet. It is a big triangular piece of ground similar to Howard Place. There’s a fountain and a Monument “The Market Cross”. Here on the base of which is the inscription

The Mayor and Corporation of Devizes avail themselves of the ability of this building to transmit to future times the record of an awful event which occurred in this market in the year 1753 hoping that such a record will serve as a salutory warning against the danger of impiously invoking divine vengeance or calling on the Holy name of God to conceal the devices of falsehood and fraud.

On Thursday 25/1/1753 Ruth Pierce of Pottern in this County signed with three other women to buy a sack of wheat in this market place each paying their due proportion towards the same. One of these women in collecting their several quotes of money discovered a defficiency and demanded of Ruth Pierce the sum which was wanting to make up the amount. She protested that she’d paid her share and said she wished she might drop dead if she hadn’t and rashly repeated it when to the consternation and Horror of the surrounding multitude she fell down and expired having the money concealed in her hand.

Other nice views of the City were Bath road South church with its Ivy covered walls and pond, etc and the tunnel. Just at end of Station platform with a fine house and bonza trees and shrubs on top making a fine view. The Town itself is a compact busy place with several big shops etc. The streets are all laid out circular and the footpaths very narrow

only room for two to walk on. We had to catch our train when the Market Place resembled the Mall. Left Devizes 7.30 and arrived at Savernake at 8.15. We had to wait for our train so went to the village ¾ of mile away. Very pretty at present time like most of English Villages. We caught our train and arrived back at camp at about 11pm tired out. Made our own beds and retired.

June 11th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Early parade all put into different platoons as the Bullring is finished with 2nd Parade. Had a Kit inspection after dinner over in other parade ground. Company drill and bombing. After tea went to Ludgershall. Back to camp

and murdered a parcel that one of the tent mates received.

June 12th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

1st Parade marched to parade ground and had orders read out. 2nd Parade Company, Platoon drill and Bombing - Lewis Gun sections picked out of Platoon. Good dinner and very warm day. Afternoon Company drill and detailed out in the different sections of Bombers, rifle grenadiers, Lewis gunners and Bayoneters. After a good tea was told my leave was granted from 12 o’clock tomorrow. Stayed in camp cleaning up.

June 13th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade and 2nd as usual marched in at 12am and granted 48 hrs leave. Left Ludgershall at 12.50 arrived at Andover Junction at 1.20 and had over an hour to wait for train. We walked through the Town of Andover. There was nothing of special interest that I could see here. A small sleepy

Town. Left Andover at 2.52 arrived at Basingstoke at 3.30 and had an hour to wait for next train so had dinner 2/6 and went to ruins of an old Castle close by. This seemed a larger and busier Town than Andover and I would have liked to look around it but after having dinner, time would not permit it. I left Basingstoke at 4.30 and arrived at Winchester at 5.5. I went for a walk around the Town a real Pleasant and busy little place. Had tea (5 courses for 3/-) and then secured accomodation at private residence the home of a Master Mason who treated me as a brother. And again went around the Town out to Park Road a very pleasant walk and back to theatre. A Comedy entitled “Jane”: Got back to bed 11.30.

June 14th 1917 Winchester

A nice fine day got up at 6.30 went sight seeing around the Town. The places of interest were 1st the Cathedral a beautifull place far ahead of anything I’ve seen yet. Especially the interior

West Gate, Winchester

with its great height of oak carvings, and the Crucifix there is a piece of work well worth going a long way to see. All the beautifull work is shown in the Post Cards. The college is another fine building but the tree surrounding it stopped our view. Also the St Cross hospital and the Barracks just outside the Town. Another interesting place is the Westgate which in olden times cut off the approach to the Town from that quarter. It was the point where all the soldiers of the Tudor times were wont to gather when an alarm was sounded. From the top of this a fine view of the Town is obtained and in the rooms are a fine collection of ancient articles all bearing on the past history of England. The latest date of any exhibit being 1803. One of the oldest being a model of a Viking boat built from some of the planks of King Alfred the great’s Viking boat which was sunk in 877 and raised out of the water in 901. A huge horn (metal)

weighing 12lbs 12oz which in olden times was sounded as an alarm to call the soldiers together for battle. It could be heard for a distance of several miles and over 700 years old. Also a pair of boots that were worn by King Charles II and a big oak coffer bound with iron which in olden times was used for storing money in instead of the banks of modern times. This bears the date of 1581. There were several more exhibits but these will suffice. Under the floor of this room is the debtors prison and persons in debt and couldn’t pay were put in there without food. The only means they had was by putting a basket out of the window and beg of the passers by for assistance. At the other end of the City is a very high hill and another splendid view of the City can be obtained from here. The City itself is quite modern and one can get anything there that is to be had in London at the same price (5 course dinner 3/-)

but the streets are narrow compared with our own. In the main street there’s a fine statue of King Alfred. In the streets are very few horses most of the traffic from the heaviest to the lightest is by motor same as other parts of England. (Plymouth)

June 15th 1917 Winchester

Got up at 7am had breakfast and went around the City shopping. Caught train at 9.48 and arrived back to Ludgershall at 11.30. had dinner and returned to camp on time. Afternoon parade Musketry and Pay (very acceptable). Evening in tent writing letters.

June 16th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Hot. 1st Parade dropped our tents and cleaned boards (spring cleaning). 2nd Parade detailed for guard to mount. Sunday evening and Guard drill. Afternoon stayed in camp writing to Maude and Doll. Evening picture show at Ludgershall.

June 17th, 18th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church parade. Weather very hot. Afternoon stayed in camp writing etc and cleaning up for guard. Nearly all our boys of C Company were transferred to B Coy and an equal number came in to C Coy. Had to parade to B C to stay in C with Mac. Fell in at 5.45. Mounted Guard at 6.30 and had to stand still 6.45 practically two hours standing at attention. I was on the second releive and had to do from 8.30 till 10.30 - 2.30 till 4.30 - 8.30 - 10.30 and 2.30 till 4.30. dismounted guard at 4.20. stayed in tent. Posted letters to Maude and Doll.

June 19th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning Parade. Again picked out the sections of Bombers, Machine gunners, rifle Grenadiers and Bayonet fighters. Changed company’s. I am still in C. wrote letters to M. S. afternoon had early dinner and went over to big rifle range to shoot off my Musketry but too big a crowd

there and I never fired. After tea stayed in tent sewing… bed early.

June 20th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie at 5.30. Paraded at 6.30 to go to rifle range again but only those who didn’t complete their musketry yesterday went over. I with others were mess tent orderlies today and didn’t go on parade untill 3pm and then only for an hour. Alloted to different tents in our Sections. Table centre to Doll.

June 21st 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade. Short route march over hill and laid down. After breakfast the usual parade musketry. Early dinner and went over to the range again but didn’t fire. I was on fatigue handing out ammunition. Raining a treat got wet through. After tea stayed in tent writing cards home. Bed.

June 22nd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie at 5.30 left camp for rifle

range at Perham at 6.30. On fatigue handing out ammunition. Had dinner early and got back to camp about 1.30 and dismissed for the day. Wrote cards to Willie, Vera and Doll. Played draughts in tent.

June 23rd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning sick parade (indigestion). 2nd Parade full marching order for 1st time in this camp. Got a letter from Maude from Ballarat. Afternoon played cricket against 67th and got beaten. After match met W. Teasdale and C. Martinelli in camp and went down to Ludgershall and there met Walter Rawnsley. Raining.

Sunday June 24th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church Parade and afternoon stayed in and the boys came over to get a snap taken but it was too dull. Stayed in at night writing to Mother and Claude.

June 25th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade most of our lads sent over to the range. The rest of us went up on hill and laid down till dinner time. Good dinner. Afternoon Parade. Lectore on bombing. Musketry and Jerks Duff for tea. For 1st time after tea […] tent mending.

June 26th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning dropped tents and clean up before breakfast. After erected tents and went over to Perham and went through gas of both sorts with helmets on. The first was most deadly and as the (Cloride and Phosgene) this is what is sent over in the K2 shells and its affect is to paralyze the heart and lungs and also affects rifles and ammunition by corrosion and unless cleaned immediately after a gas attack are useless. A good remedy is to

cover both the rifle and ammunition with oil and clean off when gas has cleared. The other gas used called [probably the tear gas T-Stoff, xylyl bromide] affects the eyes only causing them to smart and run profusely. Similar to although stronger than onions this has a pleasant smell resembling pineapple. It is always after a bombardment with these shells T or tear shells that the “K2” are sent over as the smell of pineapple hides the smell of the more deadly gas. The “K1” shell is the same as the T and also affects the stomach causing vomiting but are not deadly. We were told to remove our helmets when in the tear gas to show what protection they were to eyes etc and wasn’t there some crying then. After dinner we went over to Trenches and had to practice in Trench warfare - Advancing in trenches behind a barrage of artillery fire etc. Back to camp. As a rear guard to main body

and then detailed for inline picket. Stayed in tent talking to W Teasdale and Westgarth also met Leo Joseph and Edgar Reid. Bendigo .

June 27th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie 5.30 and left for Bullford range at 7.30 arrived 9am and started our musketry. I’d fair success at early stage. Put in the day there and got back to camp at 5.30pm. tired and stayed in tent.

June 28th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie at 5.30. and after breakfast fell in for Musketry but were dismissed to our tents on account of rain. Cleared up at 9.30 went to Bull ring musketry practice. Afternoon same. Evening in tent writing Maude, May, Alma and Mrs T. also started cards to (Hym). Doll heard Mongolia sunk with all mails on from early May till few days ago.

June 29th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Raining hard. Didn’t get up untill 8am. Breakfast and back to our tents. After a little while went and got paid followed by lecture in big Mess tent. Afternoon another lecture. Stayed in playing draughts evening.

June 30th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Usual parades on parade ground. Musketry practice , advancing under fire and wire entanglements. Afternoon and evening playing cricket.

Sunday July 1st 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church parade and inspection of lines. Afternoon went into Tidworth. Home early through Perham camp. Received 3 Bendigonians.

July 2nd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Nice weather. Usual parades on ground. Mac went to school at Tidworth. Evening in tent sewing colours on and mending etc.

July 3rd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Musketry at Perham range all day. Scored

29 out of possible 40. Evening writing. Got 3 letters and Photos from home P C from Eve and letters from Claude.

July 4th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Raining. Did not get up untill 7.45 then put in all day in mess tents listening to lectures on Outpost work etc. After tea in tent writing and W. Teasdale and H. Martinello came over and had a yarn. Will expects to go over the water shortly. Had a feed and went to bed. Still raining.

July 5th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade after breakfast at 8am. Went over to rifle range shooting 5 rounds rapid. 5 rounds application at 300 and 5 app and 10 rapid at 400 and 5 rounds rapid prone position. Came home and stayed in tent writing.

July 6th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Got up at 6.30. Fell in for roll call. Breakfast 7.30. parade 8.15 marched to range fired 5 applications

5 rapid fire at 400. Then a series of lectures untill Dinner time (Meat and water stew). Afternoon the same untill 4pm then went out for 1 hour drill. Evening in tent writing home.

July 7th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie 6am and left camp for range to fire the classification shots. For prizes have to score 115 to 125 for 10/- and 125 and over for 1 £ prize. Up to date I’ve got 39 out of a possible 60 made up as follows 5 rounds application at 400yards 15 out of 20, 10 rounds rapid (4 5sec) at 400 yards 24 out of 30. Came home for dinner then played cricket in afternoon. Met young Bright from Hargreaves St. Posted long letter to Doll. Received one from M.S.

Sunday July 8th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Raining no church parade. In tent writing. Heard of big air raid in London nearly 40 Aeroplanes and Zepps took part. Said to have dropped bombs on St Pauls and G.P.O. Evening writing Mother.

July 9th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Light drizzling rain. Went over to range all day firing. Lost a lot of points. Fired at 400 5 rds Application and mad minute (15 rounds rapid fire). Evening went to Village.

July 10th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Nice day. Finished Musketry fired 5 app and 5 rapid at 300 with gas helmets on. And 5 snap shooting at shilluck target. Done fairly well. After we finished Musketry, Infantry in attack drill. Evening went to Tidworth to see Mad J. Wilde boxing. Had nothing to extend him.

Julu 11th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Early Morning paraded sick (indigestion). Second parade on parade ground Bayonet drill, Musketry practice and firing rifle grenades. Afternoon played cricket against 65th and evening 6pm mounted duty as B.B.R. runner. All the companys in Batt went out on a night stunt returning at about 1am. I finished at 9.30pm. Bed.

July 12th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Had to report at B.O.R. at 6.30 and carried out duties “runner” all day. Dismounted from duties 6.30. Received “Parcel” from home. Stayed in tent “picnic” on Pudding and Cocoa.

July 13th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie 6am. 1st parade short march. 2nd Parade usual. Bayonet drill. Infantry in attack drill and rifle grenade firing. Afternoon Outpost lecture and work. Had a lot of writing cards Winchester to Doll and Children and letter to Lin also letter M. Sumbler.

July 14th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Good weather. 1st parade told off for duties and struck tents. 2nd Parade Battn drill. Came in early to put up tents again. Afternoon in tent. Mate got a parcel. Murdered it. Brigade sports on sports ground. Didn’t go as had to mount duty Colingbourne picket till 9.30pm.

Sunday July 15th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie 7am. Church parade 9am but heavy thunderstorm caused it to be abandoned ½ way.

Got a road pass for Romsey and went 20 miles bike ride. Splendid abbey. Got back to camp at 1am.

July 16th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Early parade. Issued with blanks and after breakfast out on the hills practicing Open Warfare. Pay.

July 17th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

No early parade. Had to report at B.O.R. for target fatigue at 8am. Same as yesterday all day. Evening started a long letter to Con. Then bed. Rain.

July 18th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Raining hard and coming through tent. Did have to turn out early parade. Breakfast as usual. Went out at 10am in light rain to again go through stint of Infantry attack in the open. Returned and had dinner at 2pm. Still rain. Was warned for guard and had to mount at 6pm. Wet night. Received letter from Con readdressed from France dated 16/4/17.

July 19th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Anniversary of Fromelles. 9000 put out of action in 11 hours. Still wet. On guard duty all day. Relieved at 6.30pm and had to go on parade at 8.15pm untill midnight. Route march. got in at 11.45 then supper and bed. (26 pages to Con).

July 20th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Breakfast 8.30. both parades 10am. Afternoon Pwo. Outpost work. Evening in tent writing.

July 21st 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie as usual. Struck tents and Battn drill. Came in early put up tents. In tent writing Home. Posted cards of Romsey - Home and London.

Sunday July 22nd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church Parade out in open. Lovely weather. Inspection and Brigadeer’s insp. Afternoon in tent playing cards.

July 23rd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Breakfast at 6.30. Left at 8am a 20miles route march through Andover about 1 mile other side, had dinner and at 2pm started on homeward march. Went through the streets of Andover

having a good look at the place. About as big as Winchester. Fine buildings and some wide streets. There is a lovely fire station, military barracks and Park. Of course we only seen the outside of these. We got back to camp at 6.30. tea and then had to parade at 7.30 for inspection of feet. Posted London night to Maude, May and Alma.

July 24th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Good weather. Arms sore from sunburn yesterday. Morning parade. 2nd attacking an enemy position in a wood. Afternoon lecture on rear guard for 2 hours and bombing 1 hour. After tea writing letter to Mrs McIntosh (Jokes)

July 25th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

1st Parade I fell out. 2nd Parade went over to bombing ground and slept. Came in for dinner and went out again in afternoon. Fired two grenades (good). Caught in showers. Came

home and got ready for long march.

July 26th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Cloudy weather. 1st Parade fixing pack. Breakfast 7.30 and at 8.30 left for a 20 mile route march through Weyhill, Thuxton, Grately, Shipton and Tidworth and got back at 5pm with sore feet. Paraded to Doctor. Too tired for anything so stayed in tent.

July 27th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Fine day. Sick parade (feet) on no duties. Wrote to Ev, Bill, Claude and Mother. Rest night stunt. […]

July 28th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Got up at 6.30 Sick parade. No duties. Paid £1-5-0. Afternoon in tent. Mac came back from school at Tidworth. Some talk of us going over any time now. Wrote to Tom B.

Sunday July 29th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church parade and inspection of lines and afternoon playing cards in tent. After tea had to mount duties. I.M. fatigue […] wrote to […]

July 30th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie 6am. parade 6.30 for M.C.B. class. After breakfast Q.M. fatigue. Wrote Salisbury letter to J. Leaney and Doll. Finished duties at 5pm. Raining hard. Night in tent.

July 31st 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie at 6.30 but we didn’t get up untill breakfast time (raining a treat). Morning in YMCA tent - lecture on the Lewis machine gun interesting and instructive. After dinner again lecture in tent. Received letter from Maude “Corio”

August 1st 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Raining. M.C.G. class again. Morning parade Y.M.C.A. tent lecture on Wood fighting. Afternoon infantry practice taking strong position in wood. Light rain. Night cards in tent.

August 2nd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Raining all night. No class. Morning Y.M.C.A. Lecture on billets and Behaviour when in billets. Received letters and cards from Doll and Children

20, 24 and 26-5-17. Also letters from Tom Hardiman and M. Afternoon Infantry in attack in open country.

August 3rd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade out in light rain. 2nd parade Infantry attack on farm. Afternoon bath parade at 4pm and after tea 6pm went out on night stunt on Outpost work. We went out on the Downs near Everleigh passing on the way a pack of hounds out exercising. On the Downs were several high mounds where in olden times the ancient Druids were buried. It was the custom in the days of Pontius Pilus when any of them died to embalm the bodies and at certain periods of the year to bury them and erect the mounds which were put there 2500 years are still in good condition (of course they are never touched up). We got back to camp at 12pm in drying rain. Had supper and turned in.

August 4th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Didn’t get up untill breakfast after which we went on a route march at 9am through Colingbourne

Kingston, Colingbourne Ducis and toward Chute then back to camp in light rain getting back to camp at 12noon. Only having 5min spell for the march. Cards in tent - after tea went down to Ludgershall. Pictures posted. Sent letter c to Maude.

Sunday August 5th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Rain stopped but ground muddy. Church Parade. Issued with boots to break in for front and all clothes, hat etc exchanged. Afternoon in tent writing to Doll, Tom, Mr Fadersen. Evening pictures.

August 6th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie usual. Breakfast at 6.30. fall in 6.45 on big Brigade stunt. During the night my equipment stolen so I didn’t go on Parade to try and find it. I spent most of time in YMCA writing to Mr and Mrs Maude, May and Alma, Bill, Aunt S, Ev, Mother and Claude. Evening in tent.

August 7th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning fine weather. Both parades same

as yesterday. Afternoon borrowed equipment and out Bayonet fighting and came back to our lines to prepare for duty. Piquet at Colingbourne Kingston. A quiet time got into bed at 10o’clock.

August 8th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Very foggy. Early morning parade as usual on parade ground. After breakfast rain came on and delayed 2nd parade. We didn’t go out untill 10.45 then went to Ludgershall. Our platoon acting on defence of the Village. The rest of Coy and 65th attacking. All the village people out to see it. After late dinner we had a lecture on rough plans and sketches by scouts and plan reading. Very interesting. After tea rain. In tent writing home and put in application for London leave for Sat.

August 9th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Morning parade as usual. On parade

ground company drill. Weather showery. 2nd Parade Musketry practice and free order, Bombing and Bayonet fighting. Dinner. Afternoon Practicing Infantry attack in the open on Everleigh Downs. Got caught in rain and got back to camp at 6pm. After tea raining wrote to Ev. Lud P.C. and letter to Mack.

August 10th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Early Morning parade on Parade ground Company drill. Second Parade. Bombing, Bayonet and extended order drill. Afternoon recaptured Ludgershall. Same stunt as Wed morning only this time our Platoon were acting as a reserve Coy. We were lying down all afternoon. After tea we had to fall in at 9.30 and went out on night stunt. It was very dark. We went out past where we had the last one at Everleigh and took a high hill. Flares being used when we were charging. Got back to camp at 3am. Supper and bed.

August 11th 1917 Windmill Hill camp
Aldwych YMCA

Got up at 8am breakfast and preparing to go on leave. Med examination etc. caught 12.20 train from Ludgershall and arrived at Waterloo Station at 3.25pm and went direct to Strand and arranged for accomodation at the Aldwych YMCA. Had dinner and started on a sight seeing tour vsiting some of the main thoroughfare. Trafalgar Square, Leicester Sq., Strand embankment etc. Had tea and went to Strand theatre (Three weeks) getting back to YMCA 11pm had supper and bed.

Sunday August 12th 1917 Aldwych

Got up at 8am. Breakfast at YMCA ( Porridge, eggs and Ham, Coffee, bread and butter). this place is just the thing. Every attention shown to the boys and so clean and cheap. A good bed being available for 9d and meals at same cheap rate. On Sunday morning mate and I went for different bus

and train rides going to Euston, Regent Park, Whitechapple (the coster quarter), King’s Cross and Strand, Cheap side Trafalgar Sq, Leicester Sq, Rottrn Row, Hyde Park and Mall. The last named are the Aristocratic parts but there isn’t the Style one would expect to see there. At Trafalgar Sq stands Nelson’s Monument a very high column with a big statue of Nelson on the top of it. There are several of these monuments in different parts ie Cleopatra’s needle on the embankment, Victoria Monument the Mall and at the other end of Mall the Admiralty Arch and at Hyde Park corner Marble Arch. We seen all of these in our travels on Sunday Morning. Afternoon went to the along embankment as far as London Bridge and back to City, and Girl Guide (Young Lady) took us in hand to show us around and went to zoo. Getting back to Aldwych for Tea after which we

wandered around. Supper and bed.

August 13th 1917 Aldwych

I was up at 7am and after good breakfast went with lady who took me to best places of interest. I should have returned to camp by train leaving Waterloo at 9am but hadn’t seen principle places so over stayed my leave. Arrived at Westminster Abbey at 9am. A Beautiful place with all the splendid Monuments of famous People (as per Post Cards). In the East Portion is the part for holding high service. Here are beautiful carvings as in other parts of Chapel and banners are hung each bearing a crest and the Lord or Knight always occupies the place thus donated at service, his “Main” squire occupying the place directly above in gallery. The chairs of Royalty, Thrones Reorgintions and State chairs are splendid pieces of work and the decoration work in the part is beyond description but can only term it most

beautiful and the work in the Jerusalem Chamber is equal if not better than the others. The tombs and Monuments are also splendid esprcially the tombs in Sanctuary and the Monument of Gen Wolfe, as also is the statue of Gladstone. But the Poets corner is most Beautiful the way the monuments are grouped etc. The P.C. Views show better than I can describe the places. From here we went along the Embankment to Waterloo Bridge where we caught tram for Tower Bridge and were fortunate in seeing it work to allow a boat to pass under. We crossed and visited London Tower Built by William the Conquerer. It covers 18 acres that is inside the walls and the buildings look gloomy surrounded by a moat which in olden times was always filled with water but is now dry and used as a parade ground for the troops. Just opposite there’s a building with all windows

broken out and front shattered by a bomb dropped by German Airmen during the big raid about 3 weeks ago. There are many buildings all over London the same and in one of the small wooden buildings where the warders clean up etc are holes up to 4 inches where fragments of bombs came through. So they got close enough to getting the Tower. The Bloody Tower was the first part shown to us at being the scene of the murder of Edward V, his brother Duke of York and Henry VI and it was here that Sir Walter Raleigh was imprisoned. The ropes and windlass for raising the massive Portcullis which is now replaced by a wooden one. From there we went to the Jewel Tower where the Queen’s Jewels and regalia are on show and a fine show it is the best in my opinion being the crown used in coronation of Edward VII. It then contained 2818 diamonds 297 Pearls and many other Jewels weighing 39oz 5dwt.

It has since been altered to allow large oblong Diamond “Star of Africa” being inserted weighing 309 3/16 carats and for the new arrangement 2 saphires 56 Brilliant and 52 rose diamonds were used. It would take too long to describe all the Crowns, Orbs, coronets, Sceptres, Maces, Baptismal font and various other things on view and on leaving the Tower we came to the White Tower, which was used as the Prison and Dungeons of which such a lot has been printed and in this part of the Building is the Armoury showing the different Armour worn at different times in the early wars of England. The Armour worn by Henry VIII in his later years weighed 81 lbs and for horse 70 lbs. Add the weight of the King and the horse had to carry approx 400 lbs or about 3½ cwt. There is a big collection of armours from various dates also the cannons, guns and pikes, 16ft lances, swords and everything used in the

early wars and every instrument and weapon used in wars right up to the Boer war. In the Beauchamp tower are the records of the prisoners dating from 1430. Also the rack and Thumbscrew and other instruments of torture and in seeing over this place one gets a creepy feeling. Although interesting, from here we made our way to St Pauls the highest building in England and all the beautiful work in architecture can be seen in this building. The work on the ceilings and walls in Marble, Oak and gold and brass is splendid. Also the Monuments along the side walls but in the Crypt where all the Tombs are. It is something to be long remembered especially the Tombs of Nelson and Duke of Wellington and others. Outside the Building there were thousands of Pidgeons. We made our way to Strand where had dinner. Afterwards going out to Hamstead for Afternoon returning

at 6pm. Had tea and went to Theatre (Three weeks) after which supper and Bed YMCA. The people of London especially Girls do all they can to make the time enjoyable for boys and go out of their way to show us around. It is just as well the decent people do this as there are any amount of the other class ever ready to stop our boys in most cases one can see disease written all over their faces.

August 14th 1917 Aldwych

Got up at 7am. breakfast and done some shopping (P.C.) and caught 8.50 train to Andover getting back to camp at 11.30 or 24 hrs over leave. On reporting back was put under open arrest which means not to leave the lines. Didn’t go on any Parades.

August 15th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Turned out at 7am and appeared before G.C. and remanded to C.O. put on time writing.

Dinner time. Appeared before C.O. and sentenced to 2 days RW and 6 days A.A. [and docked 8 days pay] afternoon usual parade Bombing Bayonet. Night writing in tent.

August 16th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Revellie 6am. Parade Dr disentry. Put on S Duties. Detailed Sergeants mess. Good meals. Night had to hand Pay books in.

August 17th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Rev usual and parade Doc and Dentist (fit). Was again innoculated ready for overseas. I believe we all have to join our original Batt 37th 3rd division. Later dental Parade and classified as fit for service. Busy writing.

August 18th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

No duty but were pottered about. Most of time writing and handing pay books etc. Had to fall in Afternoon and were

detailed for inlying piquet which is contrary to rules as when warned for draft we’re exempt from duties like that.

Sunday August 19th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Church Parade and later on fall in to be checked and received orders about returning our kits. Afternoon drew our overseas boots which were returned to Q.M. after a weeks wear and returned all issue except 1 suit, change of underwear, shaving materials which is to be carried in pack. Evening went with Mac to Ludgershall for tea and Pictures.

August 20th 1917 Windmill Hill camp

No early Parade. After breakfast paraded Dentist finale exam and dismissed 10am. Had to fall in for Pay. Got tired of waiting and left. Were finally medically examined. Fit. Had tea and put in the evening writing. Posted letters to Doll and Bill.

August 21st 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Got up in time for breakfast. Shaved, etc and Packed our Packs and our equipment together ready for leaving. Dinner. Had to fall in at 3pm for Kit inspection and sign no. shortages. Dismissed at 4.45 told not to leave the lines and hold ourselves in rediness to leave any time. After tea we were told we wouild not be leaving tonight. Stayed in tent. Cards.

August 22nd 1917 Windmill Hill camp

Got up at 8am. Breakfast. Parade for another Kit inspection and once again ready to leave. Taking advantage to post this now. We leave at 2pm.

W. G. Dahl

LETTERS

postcard to Doll
February 25th 1917

Posted from Sutton Manderville. No 1 Doll, Lin and P.C. Fovent and Plymouth to Maude and Doll.
Received. No 1 and Bendigonians from Doll and M

February 28th 1917

Posted. Letters Sophia, Aunt S, Claude, Mick M. and No 2 to Doll.

March 5th 1917

Posted. No 3 to Doll, Bill and Claude S.M. card.

March 7th 1917

Received. No 3 from Doll.

March 6th 1917

Received No 5 from Doll and 2 Bendigonians

March 9th 1917

Posted. Tisbury P.C. to Ev, Mother. Letters to Tom B, Lin and No 4 to Doll and booklet of Tisbury church.

March 10th 1917

Posted. Tisbury P.C. Mrs Fadvisen and P.C. Maude, May, Alma. Fovant P.C. to Con Vip.

March 12th 1917

Posted. Card silk and letter to Mick M.

March 13th 1917

Posted. Tisbury P.C. and No 5 to Doll

postcard to Doll
March 20th 1917

Posted. No 6 and Forget me not card to Doll

March 22nd 1917

Posted. No 7 to Doll and Bill. Card silk to Lin.

March 25th 1917

Posted from Fovant Tisbury P.C. to Doll. Letter to Maude.

March 30th 1917

Posted. Letter No 8 and Silk card “With Love” to Doll and letter to Mick M.

April 3rd 1917

Posted. Letter No 8 to Doll.

April 5th 1917

Received. Letters from Willie and Vera and No 5 from Doll.


postcard to Doll
April 4th 1917

Posted. Cards to Doll, Maude, May, Alma.

April 5th 1917

Posted. Fovant and Tis P.C. to Doll and P.C. to Lin, Bill and J. Williams.
Received. No 6 from Doll.

April 8th 1917

Posted from Lark Hill No 9 to Doll and letter to Claude and P.C. to Bill.
Received. No 7 and 10 from Doll and P.C. from Ev.

April 12th 1917

Posted. Cards to Ev and Doll and letter to M.

April 15th 1917

Posted. Letter No 10 to Doll and letters and card to Aunt S, Sophia.
Received. No 9 from Doll.

April 16th 1917

Received. Letters No 8 from Doll, Maude, May and Claude.

April 18th 1917

Posted. No 11 to Doll. Maude and P.C. Will and Vera.

April 19th 1917

Posted. Cards to Mrs F., Maude, May, Alma and Silk Thinking of you to Doll.

April 20th 1917

Posted. Cards to Mother and Claude

April 27th.

After leave Received. Letters from Ev, Maude, Alma and No 11 from Doll.

April 29th 1917

Posted from Windmill Hill P.C. and letter No 12 to Doll.

April 30th 1917

Posted. Salisbury P.C. (snow) to Doll, Will and Vera. Letter to Maude.

May 2nd 1917

Posted. Salisbury L.C. to Mother and May. No 13 to Doll.

May 5th 1917

Received. Book from Sunday school. Letters from Frank, Bill (£1) and R. McLeod, J. Williams

May 6th 1917

Posted to Bill, McLeod.

May 9th 1917

Posted. Letter to Evilin and Mick M.

May 10th 1917

Posted. Letter No 14 and snaps to Doll and P.C. of Southsea to Will, Vera and Doll.

May 11th 1917

Posted. Salisbury L.C. to Maude

May 12th 1917

Posted P.C. to Mrs F., May, Alma and Portsmouth L.C. to Maude.

May 14th 1917

Posted. L.C. to Maude and Claude.

May 18th 1917

Received. Letters 13 and 14 from Doll and Photos.
Posted. No 14 to Doll.

May 20th 1917

Posted. Letter to Mick M.

May 21st 1917

Posted P.C. to Aunt S and Maude.

May 22nd 1917

Posted. P.C. Views of Westminster and London to Doll and Table Centre.

May 23rd 1917

Posted. Letters to M.M. Sumbler and Salisbury P.C. to Lin

May 25th 1917

Received Letters No 16 and 17 from Doll and Sis Gephant.

May 27th 1917

Posted. Tidworth L.C. to Will and Vera and No 15 to Doll. P.C’s to Tom Hardiman.

May 30th 1917

Posted. P.C’s to Bella and Ev.

May 31st 1917

Posted. P.C. Southsea to Maude and L.C. Andover to Bill.

June 1st 1917

Received. Parcel from Mother Claude.

June 3rd 1917

Posted. Letter No 16 to Doll

June 7th 1917

Posted. Appleshaw P.C. to Doll

June 8th 1917

Posted. Parcel containing badges, regalias, Handkerchiefs to choldren. Appleshaw cards and Photos to Bill.

June 10th 1917

Posted. Devizes L.C. to Doll. Letter to M.S. Winchester.

June 14th 1917

Posted. Winchester book of views to Doll

June 16th 1917

Posted. Letters No 16 to Doll and Maude.

June 19th 1917

Received. Parcel from Doll.
Posted. Letter to M.Mc.

June 21st 1917

Posted. No 18 to Doll.

June 22nd 1917

Posted. P.C’s. to Will and Vera. Card (verse) to Doll. Snaps and Films.
Received. 2 Bendigonians.

June 23rd 1917

Received. Letter from Maude 29/4/17

June 24th 1917

Received. Letter No 18 from Doll 8/4/17
Posted. Letters to Mother and Claude.

June 28th 1917

Posted. Letter to Maude and cards to Mrs F. May and Alma.

June 30th 1917

Posted. Plymouth cards to Doll

July 1st 1917

Received. 3 Bendigonians and Table Talk.

July 3rd 1917

Received. 3 letters dated 17th, 23rd, and 30th/4/17 from Doll, 1 from Claude and P.C. from Ev

July 5th 1917

Posted. No 18 to Doll

July 8th 1917

Posted. Letter to Mother. M.

July 11th 1917

Received. Parcel from Doll and May.

July 13th 1917

Posted.

Winchester cards to Doll and letter to Lin and M.S.

July 18th 1917

Received. Letter from Con Vap 16/4/17
Posted. Letter to Con.

July 19th 1917

Posted. Cards Romsey and night time London to Doll

July 22nd 1917

Posted. P.C’s London to Alma and May. London and Plymouth to Maude.

July 24th 1917

Posted. Letter Mrs McIntosh.

July 27th 1917

Posted. Plymouth C’s to Claude and Mother. Winchester C’s to Ev. Romsey and Plymouth C’s to Bill.

July 28th 1917

Received. Two Bendigonians

July 30th 1917

Posted. Letter No 19 to Doll. J. Leaney and Salisbury C to Con.

July 31st 1917

Received. Letter from Maude 28/5/17

August 2nd 1917

Received. Letters from Doll 20th, 24th, 26th/5/17. Letters from Tom Hardiman. M

August 5th 1917

Posted. Letter No 20 to Doll and P.C. Tom Har., Ludgershall L.C. to Maude.

August 6th 1917

Posted. P.C’s to Mr and Mrs Maude, May and Alma. Salisbury L.C. to Aunt S. and P.C’s to Bill, Ev and Claude. Letters to Mother and Sophia.

August 8th 1917

Posted. No 21 to Doll and cards.

August 9th 1917

Posted. Ludgershall L.C. to Ev. Letter M.

August 15th 1917

Posted. Letter No 22 to Doll and Abbey and Tower P.C.

August 16th 1917

Posted. Letter to Lin and M.S.

August 17th 1917

Posted. P.C. of London to Claude, Maude and Mother.

August 18th 1917

Posted. P.C. London to Doll Will and Vera.

August 19th 1917

Posted. P.C. to Mr and Mrs Maude, May and Alma.

Salisbury L.C. to Con. P.C. to Ev.

August 20th 1917

Posted. Letter to Doll No 23 and Bill.

August 21st 1917

Posted. Letter to H. Curnow (nigger).

postcard to Ev
postcard to Doll
postcard to Doll
postcard to Vera
card to Ev
photograph to Olga

Places of Interest in London

Westminster Abbey

West of the House of Parliament. Erected during the reigns of Henry VII, Edward I and Henry VIII and completed by the addition of the Western tower in more recent times by Sir Christopher Wren. Style Early Gothic except Henry VIII Chapel which is late Gothic - commenced in 1245. The Abbey is 416 ft in length. The Western Towers being 225 ft high. The Monuments to Eng greatest men are to be found here. Among the most notable are Dr Johnson, Shakespere, Gladstone, Dickens, Campbell John, Gay, Lord Palmerston, Gen Malcolm, Gen Wolfe and Sir Robt Peel.

St. Pauls cathedral

Is Wren’s masterpiece built in 1710. Built entirely of Portland stone and

resembles St Peters of Rome. The Western Façade is flanked by two Bell towers. In the south one of which hangs “Great Paul” the largest bell in England its weight is 17 tons. The immense dome is the most imposing feature of the Cathedral. Around the Interior of which runs the renowned whispering. gallery. there are some beautiful works of art in here most notable being the Tomb of Nelson.

Tower of London

Stands at the Eastern end of City and dates back to William the Conquerer. Has been used as a Fortress. a Palace and a prison and is now one of the sights of London. It contains many objects of historical interest among them being

the Royal Jewels and the different sets of armour worn in the early wars of England.

Tower Bridge

Runs from the Tower of London across the Thames to Rotherhithe. Opened on June 30th 1894. The special feature is the two Bascules which form the centre span which in the ordinary way form the road for wheeled and foot traffic but are raised to allow the passage of large boats.

Trafalgar Square
fountain at Trafalgar square

The Nelson Monument faces Parliament St, erected 1843, height 145 ft. the Battles of Nile, Cape St Vincent, Copenhagen and Death of Nelson are represented by 4

bas reliefs at the Base. The great bronze lions at each corner were modeled by Sir R. Landseer and the cost of Nelson statue was £28,000. Also in the square are statues of George IV, Sir Henry Havelock, Sir Charles Napier and General Gordon.

Albert Memorial

Situated opposite Albert Hall, St Kensington erected by Queen Victoria and her people to the memory of Albert Prince Consort as a tribute of their gratitude for a life devoted to the public good at a cost of £120,000.

Cleopatra’s Needle

Standing on Victoria Embankment between Waterloo and Westminster bridges. It originally Stood before the great temple of Heliopolous, is 68 ½ ft high and weighs 180 tons

and was brought from Egypt in 1878

Buckingham Palace

The residence of H.M. the King. Situated West end of St James Park. The national Monument to Queen Victoria stands in front of the main gates.

Hyde Park

Between Kensington and Bayswater. Area 361 acres. Contains an artificial lake “The Serpentine” used for bathing, rowing and skating.

Regents Park

Area 470 acres contains Artificial Lake and the Zoological gardens and on the S.E. are the Botanical gardens.

Blackwall Tunnel

Running under the Thames between

Blackwall and Grenwich opened in 1897 at a cost of £150,000 length 200ft and diameter 23 ft.

Royal Exchange

Situated opp Bank of England. Contains some beautiful Frescoes by well known artist and several statues. An equestrian statue of Duke of Wellington occupies prominent position in front of building.

Bank of England

Situated in heart of City at one of busiest parts of London. Founded in 1694

Parliament houses

Westminster. A superb specimen of Gothic Architecture. Attached to building is a clock Tower commonly known as Big Ben.

Westminister Hall

One of the oldest buildings in London

dating from 1097. Richard II rebuilt it in its present form and in 1399 received his Christmas guests within its walls numbering 10,000 per day. Dimensions of the great hall length 300 feet, width 70 ft, height 100 ft. A remarkable feature is the single span wooden roof.

Hampton Court Palace

16th Century. About 11 miles out of London. Built by and presented to Henry VIII by Cardinal Wolsey. The state appartments, beautiful gardens, maze and celebrated grape vine (now about 150 years old) tram or bus from Hammersmith.

Kew Gardens

Kew will appeal strongly to horticulturists. The gardens beautifull laid out are no less attractive as Palm house and Museum.

Hertford House

Manchester Sq. W. contains the Wallace

collection of pictures, furniture, Porcelain and Armour. Ought to interest a connoiseur.

Albert Hall

S. Kensington. One of the largest concert halls in the world capable of seating 10,000 people. Built 1867-71 as a Memorial to the Prince Consort. The large organ in here has nearly 9000 pipes.

London Bridge

Marks the limit to the ingress of large ships up the Thames. At the north end stands the Monument, a column 200 ft high and by ascending a circular stairway 300 steps a good view of London can be obtained.

Full Diary from date of leaving Australia untill leaving England for France in Aug 1917 already sent home and received there.

Having lost the one with accounts of doings up to Jan 1st 1918 am writing from memory so may not be accurate.

I left England from Southampton about the end of August [and was transferred back to the 37th Battalion]. It was there I seen the sister boat to Luisatana [torpedoed two years earlier], the Aquatana, a very big one being fully three times as large as any I had seen before. The trip down gave us glimpse of some very pretty places and we Anchored waiting for the night to cross over. We were aboard the Paddle Boat La Margurita. Arrived at Havre early on the morning of September and at about

9am with full packs etc. It was very hot and seemed a long way about 5 miles we had to go. Havre is a fairly big and busy place, but very dirty after England. I’ve since been in Towns and Villages in France that would put many pig stys in the shade for filth and now consider Havre a cleaner place. We however didn’t see much of it as we took a back road. All traffic in France is opposite to ours as instead of keeping to the left of the road its to the right. We seen some novel sights however. Hawkers carts drawn by dogs are common and fruit etc is very expensive. Oranges 3d each then, now ½ France (5d). We had some spells on the roadside and it was then we were pested with the dirty Kids cadging “Boolee Beef”, “Biskee” and “Penee”. They are champion cadgers and from

what I’ve seen of them since in every Town or Village I’ve been through. I really believe it’s the first words they learn. Another sight which caused amusement and evoked cheers from our Boys happened at Harfleur. A French Man coming along the street with a Lady on his arm stopped at what turned out to be a urinal just a niche in the wall and with her still in his arm got to work. This so amused the Boys they heartilly cheered him. It was so novel to us but it is a common practice here. Another noticable thing was fine stamp of horses working in the streets and we were told it is on account of horseflesh being used for consumption. Only the best are kept for working. We finally arrived at Aust. Inf. Base Dep where we went through the usual routine of drawing blankets and medical and dental inspection etc. We stayed about a week here having to march every day up the steep hill about 3 miles to the Bull ring where we went through a

course of training including Bayonet fighting, Bombing, Gas drill and Jerks. We were well catered for in the way of Picture shows, concert, reading and writing rooms and canteens etc to put in the evenings. We left fully equiped for front line. Blankets and ammunition added to our already big load and entrained at Havre for a 20 hour train ride 36 of us in a cattle truck. Passing through some fine agricultural country. The French people cultivate the Land more extensively than any other Country I’ve been in and their impliments are crude and primative not like Eng with their motors and steam ploughs etc and the women old and young do their days work in the fields. We arrived at Lumbre and from there went in motor wagons to Blequin where we joined our Battalion. I went into a Lewis gun section in A Coy and we put about 3 weeks there training for hop over during our stay. Here we had fun trying to make ourselves understood and understand the French people where we were billeted. I shall never forget the first billet I was in, the fowls were roosting

overhead and I thought how fortunate I was that cows don’t roost. The houses in the Villages all have a big manure heap in the centre of the yard and all sides slope to the centre and as there’s always water there you can imagine the stench. The well from which drinking water is drawn is usually 12 ft away from this and must get some drainage. While back here we went one day to the coast between Calais and Boulogne to a place called Wissant and indulged in Bathing and watching the shipping of which there was plenty with destroyers for convoys. We seen a Submarine U25 that had been drawn ashore about 3 months previous and destroyed. We returned next day after a good time which was all too short. We were next inspected by Sir Douglas Haigh that sterling Soldier and General, and two days after moved out and nearer the lines. We had 4 days march stopping each night in a Village the names of which I‘ve forgotten and I developed some lovely blisters. The last ½ day I rode on a limber. We then had two days rest to

organize for 4th Oct stunt at Broonscinde Rgd Tinnebeck. I was sent to Morbeck in reserve (The stunt was a great success with few casualties). I met Mac here having left him in Eng and while here went in to Hazebrouck twice, views of which I have sent home. This place received considerable attention from Fritz Bombing planes and here I first seen anti-aircraft guns in action. We left here on 4-10-17 and trained to Poperinge and a few kilo’s march brought us to our camp. Mac, Bradly and myself managed to get lost that night and found our cookers early next morning.

view east across from Broodseinde ridge
After a couple of days here we moved up near the lines and camped in dug outs and on the night of 11th moved up and early on the 12th went over the top. Our objective was Paschendaele but mud as well as shells, Machine gun fire and snipers stopped us and it was perfect hell described in letters home. That night I was carried out by stretcher bearers of the 40th Bat to where we hopped over and I made my way out from there. Several times being stuck in mud well above my knees.

[During late 1917 the Allies launched three separate attacks at Ypres in Flanders. Though the objective of Passchendale was eventually reached, it cost many lives. The first of these attacks involved the New Zealand and 3rd Australian Divisions. On October 15th they had been forced to retreat in soft mud, and thousands were killed.]

However from dressing

station I got motor ambulance to 3rd Div dressing station where I was put to bed on stretcher [with pleurisy] and next day conveyed to C.C.S. at Poperinge per Motor and sent from there to 29th General at St Omer where I was well looked after and on being discharged from there sent to No 7 Convalescent Dep at Boulogne where I stayed a fortnight going one day into City to have a look around but was not impressed with it. There are only two places of interest. I seen an old Cathedral a fine building in olden times with a wall around. In closing a little City which was I believe was the Boulogne of early days and a splendid Monument erected in honour of Napoleon on the Coast where he was supposed to have rallied his grand Army. This is in the form of a high column resembling Nelson’s Monument at Trafalgar Sq. Visitors can reach the platform near the top by means of a spiral stairway where on a clear day the Cliffs of Dover can be seen. From there after a fortnight I was sent to No 9 Con Camp at Ecault a cold bleak place on the Coast where I stayed a week which

was quite long enough there and then went on to Trouville a very pretty place the finest I had seen then or since seen in France. The camp is on a high hill about 4 miles out from the City and is reached by a light Railway which when loaded the small engine puffs and grunts enough to strain every rivet in its construction and reminds one of the miniture railway on view at the Fair at Easter time. At the foot of the hill is the prettiest racecourse I’ve ever seen, with splendid grand stands etc and being small reminds one if the M.C.G. it is here the big race of France is run “Grand Prix”. The front is the St Kilda of France with its places of amusement, bathing boxes etc and splendid Pier Promenade, fine buildings etc. The Sporting club take up a large area with numerous tennis courts, bowling greens etc and of the Buildings I’ve never seen anything to compare or equal the “Casino” a fashionable club patronized by the Heads of All Nations in peace times. The City rises away from the sea front and is very pretty (Some

good views sent home). I was only a week in this place and in City once and then sent onto Buchy - Monterollier where I spent a very enjoyable time for two weeks. We had very little to do and there was always something to put in the evenings at Concerts, Boxing bouts, whist drives, dances etc. Spent Christmas day and the Winter there and from then till New Year as by Diary which I copy now.

[An Australian referendum in December again rejected conscription, despite censorship of opposition.]

January 1st 1918 Buchy

Cold Morning. Employed in Dining hall. Afternoon concert by Lena Ashwell party. Evening Whist drive at Red X. Won sweep. Writing.

January 2nd 1918 Buchy

Not so cold morning. Only employed in Dining hut. Afternoon and evening cards. Wrote to A. Mumford.

Sunday January 4th 1918 Buchy

Cold. Sleeping afternoon. Night Whist night.

January 5th 1918 Buchy

Thawing. Afternoon football good game. Night cards and writing.

January 6th 1918 Buchy

Freezing hard - around fire all day. Sunday.

January 7th 1918 Buchy

Cold but warmed during day. Afternoon raining received and answered letters from Doll. Paid 20 F. Night Red X draughts and Billiards with Toyner H

January 8th 1918 Buchy

Very cold. Heavy fall of snow. Writing and bath night. Red X Billiards and draughts.

January 9th 1918 Buchy

Freezing during night. Cold. Classified B and 5 days medicine. Night wrote Mrs F.

January 10th 1918 Buchy

Warmer later raining. Afternoon cards in hut. Night concert by camp Party very good.

January 11th 1918 Buchy

Rain all day. H. Joyne left early morning. Night Boxing tourney. Chummed up with Wally Wilson (R.S.).

January 12th 1918 Buchy

Cold and snow (new hands in dining hall). Evening Concert at Red X. Received parcel from Prahan - Scarf, Sox, Balaclava etc.

Sunday January 13th 1918 Buchy

Raining all day and night heavy. Cards in hut.

postcard to Doll
January 14th 1918 Buchy

Cloudy, mild. Afternoon sewing and cards in hut. Writing to Doll (silk). Night Concert good.

January 15th 1918 Buchy

Rained all night. Afternoon in hut cards. Night writing and received letter from N. Joyne (Base)

January 16th 1918 Buchy

Raining. Afternoon and night writing.

January 17th 1918 Buchy

Cloudy. Cards in hut “Poker”. Night Concert by Camp Concert party. New talent good.

January 18th 1918 Buchy

Cloudy. Afternoon Lena Ashwell party “Jock on roof”. Evening writing Toyne 54 Seige Baby.

January 19th 1918 Buchy

Cloudy. Poker in hut.

Sunday January 20th 1918 Buchy

Cloudy. Sleeping all day.

January 21st 1918 Buchy

Cloudy and rain. Parcel (Xmas cake). Writing Ev. Pay day. Night What happened to Jones Camp Party.

postcard to Doll
January 22nd 1918 Buchy

Fine. Paraded Dr (ingrowing toenail) painted with Iodine. Washing and writing home. Cards in hut.

January 23rd 1918 Buchy

Raining. Afternoon Classified B. evening Red X games and writing. Received sox from Doll.

January 24th 1918 Buchy

Cloudy “Poker”. Night concert camp party.

January 25th 1918 Buchy

Fine “Poker”. Night Anniversary of Burns concert. YMCA wrote home cards to Children.

January 26th 1918 Buchy

Very cold. Around fire all day and evening.

January 28th 1918 Buchy

Fine. Bath and cards. Night concert not so good as usual.

January 29th 1918 Buchy

Fine. Afternoon “Poker”. Night concert and Freezing.

January 30th 1918 Buchy

Fine and colder. Afternoon parade. Night Whist 152 win 160.

January 31st 1918 Buchy

Nice day. Classification Dr. Recommended for board. Received two reg letters 55 and 57 from Doll. Evening and letters from Home and Toyne Belgium.

February 1st 1918 Buchy

Cold. Warned and left for Base at 11am arrived at Harfleur 5pm. Met Blue Agar at Dencrauxt YMCA.

February 2nd 1918 Base Havre

Not so cold. Revellie 6.30. Morning Dr inspection. Shortages and exchanges. Afternoon dental. Evening pictures and after a concert at Y M. During afternoon lodged enquiries concerning Les Bailey and M. Mumford.

Sunday February 3rd 1918 Base Havre

Sunday. Cold. No parade. Big draft went out. Writing.

postcard to Vera
February 4th 1918 Base Havre

Raining. Dental parade 9am got lower plate fixed up. Afternoon reading. Night Concert Supper

February 5th 1918 Base Havre

Mild. On fatigue pumping water. Dinner time told off guard. Drew equipment and rifle. Concert at Sal hut. Left ½ time. Supper at canteen with Blue Agart.

February 6th 1918 Base Havre

Left camp at 7.30 marched to 39th General 6 mile out guarding Fritz compound (V.D.). Raining and cold during night

February 7th 1918 Base Havre

Relieved at 10am. Back to camp at 1pm. Afternoon received parcel from Mother. Blue left with draft.

February 8th 1918 Base Havre

Raining. Warned for ¼ guard drill. Draft came in from Blighty. Met L. Arthur. Mounted guard (clink) at 3.30pm. Cold during night.

February 9th 1918 Base Havre

Cold and rain. Relieved 3.30. Dem on draft. Writing.

Sunday February 10th 1918 Base Havre

No parade. Bath. Warned for 39th guard. Afternoon escort draft to Havre, free at 3.30. photo taken - visited Rue de Gallay. Women naked. Had tea in town. Waitresses depend on tips for wages. Back at 9.30pm.

February 11th 1918 Base Havre

Left camp 8am. Mounted guard 10. 1st relieve.

February 12th 1918 Base Havre

Cold. Returned to camp 1pm. Sleeping afternoon. Evening pictures poor program and supper at YMCA.

February 13th 1918 Base Havre

Cloudy and light rain. Mounted ¼ guard (clink).

Australian general base at Havre
February 14th 1918 Base Havre

Cloudy. Relieved 3.30. Pictures all war films. Riot

February 15th 1918 Base Havre

Fatigue in dining hall. Afternoon Poker. Evening sewing and pictures. Freezing. Warned for 39th guard

February 16th 1918 Base Havre

Very cold. Mounted at 39th at 10pm.

Sunday February 17th 1918 Base Havre

Returned to camp 1pm. “Poker” and Pictures.

February 18th 1918 Base havre

Cold but fine. Digging fatigue. Warned for draft. Afternoon full marching orders. Shortages

February 19th 1918 Base Havre

Parade 8am marching orders. Inspection and moved off for Havre train. Left at 2pm arrived at Buchy about 7.15pm. Stayed hour for tea. Slept rest of journey. Arrived Hazebrouck 8am.

February 20th 1918 Hazebrouck

Had breakfast and wash and arrived Castrea at 10am. Marched about 1 mile to reinforcement camp. Afternoon gas parade. Met F. White. Raining.

Caëstre village
February 21st 1918 Caëstre camp

G fatigue in cookhouse. Afternoon Dr inspect (chronic bronchitis). Told try to carry on.

February 22nd 1918 Caëstre camp

Cookhouse. Parade full marching order 10am. Afternoon cookhouse. Evening Castrea quiet. Up all night dysentry

February 23rd 1918 Caëstre camp

Left in motor transports at 10. Went through [Fletre?] and Bailieule to [Ploegstreet]. Arrived at Red Lodge 3pm. In dugout in side of hill. With Bradley up most of night dysentry. Wrote to W. Wilson.

catacombs at Ploegsteert
Sunday February 24th 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Got up 10am, detailed for tunnelling at Catacombs.

February 25th 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Afternoon shift and started work on P.C. Sleeping in

February 26th 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Fine. Got up 12. Writing Toyne and home. Worked 4 till 7.30. Left (shelling). Received papers from home and Bill

February 27th 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Breakfast 7.30, work 8. Fine day. Received parcel Aust. Pat society re Miss K. Mulcahy sister of Sgt Mal 37th.

February 28th 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Fine day. Shift carrying. Later snowing. Wrote Con, Ev.

March 1st 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Cold and rain. Day shift. Received mail home Bill, Maj, Maude, Alma Ev.

March 2nd 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Very cold wind. Afternoon snowing. Day on C.P. Received letters Con. Big raid tonight. Talk of moving tomorrow Wrote Home and Bill.

Sunday March 3rd 1918 Catacombs Ploegsteert

Cold. Worked till 2pm. Forgotten. Picked up in hurry rest of party gone. Had to walk to Canteen Corner 4 miles. Met Mac now Drum Major of Band. Got letters from Doll and Maude refrees from Con.

March 4th 1918 Canteen Corner

Left 10am marched to Steenweck entrained. Reached Lumbre 5pm and marched to Billets at Colomby 8 Kilo, 3 hours. Raining all time and straight to bed.

March 5th 1918 Coulomby

Got up 8. General clean up, shortages etc. afternoon parade ½ hour and dismissed. Went short walk with Cec - sewing. Received letters Claude and W. Wilson R.S.

March 6th 1918 Coulomby

Revellie 6.30. Parade 8.45 to 10.30 dismissed to scrub

equipment and clean up. Afternoon free walked to Blequin (8 Kilos) to see old billet. Well received got back at 9.30 tired (lost our way).

March 7th 1918 Coulomby

Parade 8.30 till 12.30 - 2 till 4.30. Mostly games. Evening writing - received Bendigonians

March 8th 1918 Coulomby

Parades usual. Fine day. Evening reading and yarn Mac.

March 9th 1918 Coulomby

Morning Parade Musketry till 11. Washing. Afternoon Football match and Cricket practice. Letter Toyne

Sunday March 10th 1918 Coulomby

Church Parade and 5 mile march. Afternoon cards.

March 11th 1918 Coulomby

Fine day warm. Bath parade and games evening. Cricket. Night with Mac. Received 2 Bendigonians

March 12th 1918 Coulomby

Morning Parade Machine gun and Bombing. Afternoon Jerks and relay run. Received Parcel Tom and Bella and Bendigonians

March 13th 1918 Coulomby

Morning Musketry and Lewis gun. Afternoon games. Evening writing Maude. Received Times. Warm weather.

March 14th 1918 Coulomby

Morning Musketry and Rifle grenades. Afternoon games. Evening writing home. Raining. Cec went on leave.

March 15th 1918 Coulomby

Cold. Fine. Bath parade. Afternoon Jerks and games then Officers Mess till 8pm. Received 45 letters and 2 papers.

March 16th 1918 Coulomby

Day devoted to Battn sports. Good program and keenly contested events. Mule race ¼ mile time 20 min record. Prize for Character costume won by book-maker. Very good. C. Coy won aggregate. A. Coy second.

Sunday March 17th 1918 Coulomby

Church parade and route march. Afternoon sun bath. Nice warm day. Writing.

March 18th 1918 Coulomby

Early parade. March 4 kilo to gas demonstration of projectile attack now used. Fine hot day.

March 19th 1918 Coulomby

Wet. Marched to Semelier[?] 10 kilos to compete in hop over. Made a farce of it and back wet through and tired

March 20th 1918 Coulomby

Breakfast in bed. Wet morning. No parade. Afternoon marched 2 kilos to 40th Parade ground and defeated them in football. Writing and washing.

March 21st 1918 Coulomby

Fine day. Morning bath. Afternoon football team V rest. Writing.

[The German operation 'Michael' began this day, with their divisions regaining the Somme battlefields that had seen the costly struggle of 1916, and overrunning the 'Red Line'.]

March 22nd 1918 Coulomby

Morning warned to prepare to move out. Afternoon full marching order and inspection of kits. Cards

March 23rd 1918 Coulomby

Revellie 4am. Moved out 5 and rested outside Lumbre till 12.30. Train arrangements bungled very bad. Then set out for Wizernes 10K arrived 3pm. Entrained 5.30pm reached Blendeux[?] and marched to the Wardreux [?] 3K. got there 9pm (billets). Dog tired. Bed.

Sunday March 24th 1918 Wardrecques

Very warm. Morning swimming in Canal. Afternoon cards (Poker).

March 25th 1918 Wardrecques

Morning cleaning ammunition, rifles, etc. afternoon Parades lecture and distribution of prizes won at sports Sleeping and left 9pm reached St Omer 12.30. Entrained.

March 26th 1918 Mondicourt

After 12 hours travelling reached Mondicourt where we met Tommies (wind up) and French Civilians getting back. Heard Fritz broke through and was about 5 Kilos away. Dumped packs and into fighting order. Scouts sent out. Resumed packs and marched to Luchelles [Lucheux?] 15K. detailed for out post 2K further on. Had 1 hours sleep - some fun with a frog.

March 27th 1918 Lucheux

6am Marched after main body to Carson [?]. Halt for breakfast and motor bussed to Franvillers. Dinner. Marched to Heiley. Went in reserve (A Coy). On march of morning met W. Bassett with tunnellers. Last of Lincons cleared out burning everything. We managed to salvage a supply of rations. The 40th went over 4pm. Cut up a treat. Later we moved nearer where front line established

37th Battalion headquarters at Treux
March 28th 1918 lines near Treux

Stand too. Quiet. Back to dugout. Afternoon Burring party. Night carrying rations to front lines. Raining a treat. Advanced a bit.

Good Friday March 29th 1918 lines near Treux

Night under cover of a Machine gun and Rifle grenade barrage. Took a wood in front of 40th trenches. ( No prisoners ). Went through and covered 40th while

they dug trench. Fritz opened out with Machine gun but over head into Wood. Got back at 1pm. Cocoa. Bed.

March 30th 1918 lines near Treux

Breakfast 5am back to bed till 10. Got up cleaned rifle etc. Raining all day no shelter. Fritz shelling, few casualties. Received Bendigonians and moved to front at midnight loaded with ammunition 450 each.

Easter Sunday March 31st 1918 lines near Treux

Fritz came over seven waves without a Barrage. Cut up a treat. Clear day. Relieved and went to billets 10.30pm

April 1st 1918 lines near Treux

Still in front line but comfortable in a Village named Treux (too true). Carried rations and after tea detailed for Patrol no man’s land. Last shift 2am untill daylight.

April 2nd 1918 lines near Treux

Came off Patrol. Breakfast. Living on Poultry and Pork Afternoon wrote to Home, Claude, Lin, Mrs F. Again on Patrol. Wind up with dead Fritz. Some buttons.

[Near disaster led to an Anglo-French conference which took place in Doullens near Amiens between the French President and Prime Minister, the British War Minister, and the chiefs of staff. This led to Field Marshall Foch being given a coordinating role for the Allied armies from April the 3rd.]

April 3rd 1918 lines near Treux

Came in at daylight. Cloudy. Got ready to move. Plucking fowls all day. Moved out at 8pm to reserve line trenches loaded as usual and poultry extra. Raining all night. No shelter. Ground too sandy

April 4th 1918 lines near Treux

Raining. Erected a covering over part of trench. Sniper busy but unsuccessful. A few shells. Looking over in turns all night. [On this day, a counter-attack by the Australian Corps prevented Amiens being taken, with the German army held at Villers-Bretonneux and Dernancourt. Operation Michael was discontinued. Both sides had lost around 250 thousand wounded or killed.]

April 5th 1918 lines near Treux

Raining. Shelled during day few casualties. Letters from Bendigo, Con and Mrs Mac. Cec back off leave. Night out wiring in front of trenches.

April 6th 1918 lines near Treux

Fine day. Nothing unusual. Heard Truex shelled and destroyed. 6pm good fight in air between 4 enemy and 3 our planes one of which driven down 20 yds behind our lines then heavy shelling. Left 8.30 for front lines. Relieved 40th. Knee deep in water all night.

dugouts at Marett wood
Sunday April 7th 1918 lines near Treux

Cleared up during day. Got outer clothes dry. Quiet.

April 8th 1918 lines near Treux

Fine. Bailed trench and dug in. Relieved at 9.30pm. Went back to reserve, sleep in dugouts. Raining leaked through.

April 9th 1918 lines near Treux

Slept till dinner time. Laid about afternoon. Dried our clothes, clean sox. Left again 9.30pm front line. One shift on a listening post and two looking over during night. Came back to reserve at Ribermont.

April 10th 1918 Ribermont

Slept till dinner time. Afternoon dried clothes and changed underwear. Afternoon salvaging German Plane brought down in Village. Spent[?] Night out digging trenches. Feeling crook. Bed 12.30.

April 11th Cloudy 1918 Ribermont

Got up at 10 reported sick marked Bronchitis and sent per motor back to XII Aust. field Ambulance at Heiley and from there to 5th C.C.

at Pequiney near Ameins then on to 58th C.C.S. at Longpree. Got there at 9pm (bed). On the way down coming through Corbie saw one of Aussie planes brought down by enemy.

April 12th 1918 Longpré

Fine day. Again examined by M.O. improving. Fritz over bombing Ameins during night. Write Claude, M. Wilson. Not overfed here.

April 13th 1918 Longpré

Early morning misty cleared later. Left at 1pm train for Rouen. Arrived 12.30pm. Taken by motor to No 3 Gen hospital established in big church. Bath and bed.

Sunday April 14th 1918 Rouen

Again examined by M.O. Card taken away. Put on general diet

Saint David hospital ship
April 15th 1918 Rouen

Up early and left at 6am and on board St David at 7. Arrived Havre at 2.45 and waited till night to cross over.

April 16th 1918 Southampton

Arrived Southampton early morning but didn’t get off boat till 4pm then layed on stretcher. On Platform 1 ½ hours. Entrained at 6pm and arrived at Birmingham 12. Motor seven miles. Bath and supper. Very cold. Snowing. No 1 Southern General Monyhull. Sect Block E. [admitted with severe bronchitis]

April 17th 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

Woke at 6. Quiet day. Plenty food four meals.

April 18th 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

Wash 4am. Fine day writing

April 19th 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

Woke up 6am. Very cold hard frost fine and later snowing. Wrote to Bill, Con. Good food.

April 20th 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

6am. Fine day. Usual menu Porridge, Egg, bread - Meat and Veg Pudding - Bread and Jam - Soup. Writing and cards in bed.

Sunday April 21st 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

Cold snowing all day. Reading and writing. Cards.

April 22nd 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

Got up afternoon for 2 hours. Fine day. Marked for Convalescent. Writing.

April 23rd 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

Got up at 6am. Fine. Making beds and helping in ward. Afternoon went to Birmingham. Dirty and smoky didn’t have time to look around. Had to ride six miles. Tram free each way and had to be back at 6.30. Very nice along road.

[Meanwhile Villers-Bretonneux was again taken from the British amid a haze of mustard gas.]

April 24th 1918 Monyhull Birmingham

Up at 6am and drew clothes etc [discharged on furlough]. Left Birmingham 11.25 arrived Euston 2.30 then by tube and motor to H.Q. Got away 5.45 on Furlough. Tea YMCA Aldwych. Pictures and supper.

April 25th 1918 Aldwych

Got up at 7. Fine day. Visited Masonic hall where I seen a splendid collection of old and modern jewels and regalia dating from 1774. The Regalia of King 1911 being splendid and sword of gold. Afternoon went to Serpentine

and Rotton Row till 4pm then visited City of London National Guards lodges. Well received and later went 2nd house. Holbun Empire vaudeville.

[Back in France, Villers-Bretonneux was retaken by the Australian 5th division. There were 15 thousand casualties.]

April 26th 1918 Aldwych

Cloudy. Slept till 8. Went to Sth Kensington and ride around London. Afternoon Hampton Crt. Night Oxford (Bairnsfather Better ‘Clo). Bed 12pm turned out for 1 ½ hours Air raid warning. Went to Tube station. Crowds there in all style of dress. Great excitement till all clear

April 27th 1918 Aldwych

Raining, later fine. Early morning Convent garden market busy scene. Afternoon Bus ride to Farnborough. A very pretty place. Went through East End (low life) slums of London. Night Vaudeville at Colisium.

Sunday April 28th 1918 Aldwych

Up early and went to Petticoat lane, Houndsditch. Afternoon met Milne 37th. Went to Regents Park. Evening concert at Aldwych YMCA and caught express (Flying Scotchman) 10.30 for Edinburgh.

April 29th 1918 Edinburgh

Arrived 8am and went straight to League Club, booked up room and visited Mrs Wilson. Afternoon tram ride around City then home to Jock McGregor. Evening Pictures with them and M. Watt.

April 30th 1918 Edinburgh

Up at 7.30. Bath and morning visited the Castle a fine old historic building dating back to It stands on a high rock, the walls being built right on the edge of the sheer side and looks like a construction of some 4000 ft above surrounding Country. There are many interesting sights inside and resembles the Tower of London. Afternoon tram ride about City. Night Pictures Jock, wife and children. M. Watts.

May 1st 1918 Edinburgh

Morning visited Holyrood Palace the former home of Queen Mary of Scotts. Built at foot of high steep hill known as Arthur’s Seat. Parts of it are now ruins but one part open to visitors are on view. The original furnishings of Queen Mary and King Charles Bedrooms, Audience Chamber, reception hall and Banqueting hall and Bedroom of Lord Darnley. There are many relics of olden times to be seen there. In the Royal Chapel Now Ruins are the Tombs of many Scotch Nobles. The grounds surrounding the Palace are well laid out and cared for. Have already sent detailed books of this and other Castle homes also views. Afternoon

went out to Portebello a pretty suburb but of no historical interest. Came back to Carlton hill at end of Princess St and seen Observatory, Nelson National and Burns Monuments the latter a fine piece of work. Night theatre (damaged goods).

May 2nd 1918 Edinburgh

Fine. Visited St Giles Cathedral, Museum and Parliament Hall and Law Courts. Afternoon Royal Scottish Academy and Art Gallery. Tea at Mrs Thompson’s and Night visited Edinburgh St Andrews Lodge. Well received and had a splendid time.

May 3rd 1918 Edinburgh

Fine. Went to Forth bridge about two mile motor ride. A triumph of engineering art. This took seven years to complete its massive girders being firmly rivetted. It stands feet above water level, the central span ¾ mile. Views and details sent home. From the Bridge as far as we could see there were ships of the fleet. A grand sight. Among them being Queen Elizabeth and our own HMS Australia. Had dinner out there and on way back visited Craigmiller Castle (ruins).

Another residence of former Scotch Royalty.
card to family
May 4th 1918 Edinburgh

Raining. Stayed home writing all morning at Club. Ramsay Lodge the home of Allen Ramsey Poet. Afternoon called on Mrs Wilson still no definate news of her Son.

Saturday May 5th 1918 Edinburgh

Fine. Morning around City. Afternoon Zoo. Evening raining visited Mr and Mrs Watt.

Sunday May 6th 1918 Edinburgh

Fine. Went to Roslyn Chapel. Afternoon Craigmiller Castle through Meadow Braid hill and Golf links. Evening Theatre.

May 7th 1918 Edinburgh

Fine. Morning went to top of Arthur’s seat. Splendid view. Afternoon went through the infirmary. Later pictures with Jock Wife and Children and they came to station. Caught 9.30 express to London

I place as the second best City I’ve ever seen. The people are sociable and generous and the City is hilly and so steep that at places it seems a two storied City particularly about the station which is in a deep Valley which is bridges at three points giving the Station the appearance of an underground.

The Park is a very pretty one though small and at the foot of the Castle rock in the Valley. Princess St runs alongside and is said to be the finest in the Empire straight and wide with very fine gardens laid out on one side while the other is all fine shops and Buildings. The best being the Caledonian station and London and N.W.Hotel. the Art Gallery is in this St and the crowning piece of work is the Sir Walter Scott Monument standing 180 ft high. The City is divided by the Bridges Old and New. In the Old City are some very old sights and one St in particular much prized by the people on account of it containing some of the houses of Olden time Scotch celebrities is there. Known as the Royal mile it extends from Holyrood Palace to the Castle and is any thing but majestic being narrow, dirty looking and broken down. A very pretty spot is Deans bridge over a very deep There is a morbid legend connected with this place refering to a sailor throwing himself over on account of a love affair and

it is said the place has a fascination for anyone contemplating suicide and to look over inspires one to jump. This has become so general that the authorities have had the walls built higher and at one time placed a guard each end of bridge. However Edinburgh is a fine City and an enjoyable time I spent there.

May 8th 1918 Aldwych

Arrived at Kings Cross at 7.30 and breakfast at Aldwych. Reported at H.Q. at 11pm and entrained at Waterloo for Dinton at 1pm. Went on to Fovant 4.20 marched to Hurdcott. Had tea. Dr exam (s a) [bronchitis] then bed.

May 9th 1918 Hurdcott

Morning dental Parade and classification B1 A2 Innoculated. No duty 48 hrs.

May 10th 1918 Hurdcott

All day in hut writing and cards. Evening met Jim Gates recovering from wounds received in Feb raid. To be decorated M.M. on 24th.

May 11th 1918 Hurdcott

Parades dentist to have teeth drawn. Writing and cards all day. Evening YMCA met J. Day and Jack Ennis wounded on 4th Oct and marked C.3 (in Sgt Mess)

Sunday May 12th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Church parade. Cards and writing.

May 13th 1918 Hurdcott

Raining. Jerks in hut. Afternoon fatigue till 3 to prepare to mount fire piquet 6. Evening pictures in YM. Free.

May 14th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Classification and guard drill till 11.30. afternoon guard drill 3 mounted at 5.30. Posted in guard room. Paid 13/-.

May 15th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine day. Guard relieved 5.30. Bed early.

May 16th 1918 Hurdcott

Clothing parade full issue. Digging till 3. Writing. Bed early.

May 17th 1918 Hurdcott

Morning on fatigue cleaning hut. Afternoon detailed Canteen. Piquet 7pm till 9pm. Wrote Bendigo and Mac. Met “Snow” Jenkins 37th.

May 18th 1918 Hurdcott

Morning muster parade (short a ). Put on Isolation diptheria. Sports at Forvant

Sunday May 19th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. In hut all day writing and cards.

May 20th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. In hut all day. Letters to Condy, Mac, Doll

May 21st 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. In hut all day. Letters to E. Bartell and J. Ianson.

May 22nd 1918 Hurdcott

Fine during night. Big air raid over East Kent. 161 Casualties 4 Bothas down and account praising Australians for their fighting at Villiers Bretneux. Wrote Mrs Wilson.

May 23rd 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Isolation lifted. Changed blankets and full issue. Afternoon cleaned and fumigated hut and cards. Night pictures. Good show 3d.

May 24th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Classified same. Route march.

May 25th 1918 Hurdcott

Warm morning. Short march. Afternoon Sleeping. Pictures and then Concert YM. Met P. Style 37th.

Sunday May 26th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Warned for Piquet P.C. Mounted 8.30pm.

May 27th 1918 Hurdcott

Relieved 8am Warm. Sleeping all morning. Big draft left for Weymouth for Australia. Afternoon March through Barford. Recd mail.

May 28th 1918 Hurdcott

Jerks all morning. Classified B3. Evening writing and received Dolls, Con, Claude.

May 29th 1918 Hurdcott

Morning digging fatigue. Afternoon Cricket. Top score and in form. Paid pound 1-2-6

May 30th 1918 Hurdcott

Warm. Warned P.C. Piquet. Mounted 5.30 got off odd man. Cricket meeting elected on committee. Cards and bed.

May 31st 1918 Hurdcott

Fine hot. Morning off. Route march nearly to Fovant. Evening cricket and pick team to play 9th T.B. at Fovant.

June 1st 1918 Hurdcott

Morning parade short arm. YM. Fatigue cigarettes, tea and cake. Afternoon went.

[Command of the Australian Infantry Forces was transferred to Lieutenant-General John Monash.]

Sunday June 2nd 1918 Hurdcott

Church Parade. Afternoon writing. Fine.

June 3rd 1918 Hurdcott

Morning Jerks. Afternoon off. Mounted P.C. Piquet. Received batch of Jan letters.

June 4th 1918 Hurdcott

Morning off writing. Classified same. Cricket and pictures.

June 5th 1918 Hurdcott

Morning Jerks schemed off. Cricket match A&B v C&D. lost by 12 runs. LBW 10.

June 6th 1918 Hurdcott

Hot. Digging. Schemed off. Afternoon missed writing letters. Sleeping open air.

June 7th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Escort duty orderly room. Raining. Jerks in rifle range shed. Cards and writing.

June 8th 1918 Hurdcott

Short A and fatigue. Afternoon depot sports. Some good running and boxing. Night Poker. Received another mail.

Sunday June 9th 1918 Hurdcott

Raining. Missed parade. Writing, washing.

June 10th 1918 Hurdcott

Raining. Missed parade. Both. Cards and writing.

June 11th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Classified A3 available for draft. Off afternoon sleeping. Night cards and writing.

June 12th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Missed morning. Afternoon cricket v A.S.C. Won easily 59 and keeping well warned for draft.

June 13th 1918 Hurdcott

Fine. Clothing parade. Afternoon S.M.6. Night Concert and pictures good. Writing.

June 14th 1918 Hurdcott

Dull. Handed in extras. Left 11am marched to Wilton and entrained. Reached Warminster at 1.20 reached Sandhill Camp [Longbridge Deverill] C.T.B. at 2.40. After tea fatigue carrying forms to theatre. Poor show.

June 15th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Reveillie 6. Parade 8.15am. Fatigue cleaning hut. Aftternoon Canteen writing. Evening met H. Olsen and J. Gates. Concert at YMCA.

Sunday June 16th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Handed in extra clothing and issued with equipment etc. Mounted guard 2pm inside post.

June 17th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Relieved guard 4pm. Night pictures and Sal Army.

June 18th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Morning march about 3 miles. Bathing parade at a fine lake (Longleaf Park). A very pretty place. The park surrounds a very fine old mansion Longleaf House, a former Squire residence. Afternoon Medical and dental parades. Evening lecture by Mr Norwood S.A. (dry). Raining.

June 19th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Dull. Marking at Butts and on coming in detailed for Officer’s Mess. Good food and five meals a day. Finished 7.30. Supper 9.30. Bed.

June 20th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Light rain. Got up 8. Easy day. Met Art Hocking barber in camp. Received Reg letter from Doll Eva and Cec. Concert YM. No good. Home early.

June 21st 1918 Sandhill Camp

Raining. Usual day. Afternoon muster parade for M.O. lecture. Night pictures. Letters from Mac and Cec (near Ameins).

June 22nd 1918 Sandhill Camp

Fine. Usual day. Evening good concert at YMCA. 3rd Brigade Party

Sunday June 23rd 1918 Sandhill Camp

Breakfast hour later. Washing and writing.

June 24th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Parade and transfer to B coy and went through gas. Applied for leave. Met Brown and went to lecture at YM, A Frenchman’s impression of England. Very good.

June 25th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Fine. Usual day. Mate on 4 day leave. Paid.

June 26th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Fine. Usual day. Washing. Night pictures good.

June 27th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Fine. New chef and staff. Writing and pictures.

June 28th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Cloudy. Mate back. Lost money belt 17/6 in coin.

June 29th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Fine. Parade. Transfer to C Coy. Leave refused. Letter Watt. Afternoon went to Warminster. Full of harlots. Got news and home for tea. Concert later supper and send off in Mess. Big night.

Sunday June 30th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Usual day (in scullery). New hands take over. Afternoon writing and getting things together.

July 1st 1918 Sandhill Camp

Parade with draft Coy. Swill fatigue all day. Night Concert by […] Sir Barnet. Party good.

July 2nd 1918 Sandhill Camp

Morning march to Longleat. Bathing and boating. Afternoon live bomb practice. Night pictures.

July 3rd 1918 Sandhill Camp

Went to rifle range. No musketry came back to parade ground, bayonet and gas drill. Afternoon answered roll call and ducked. Received letter from Mrs Wilson no news. Night lecture around the World. Very interesting especially New York (details sent home).

July 4th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Morning usual games, Jerks and Bayonet drill. Afternoon sports at Sutton Vinney to celebrate Yanks day. Big day in London. Big push near Ameins. Good work by Yanks and Aussies.

July 5th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Warm. Guard drill all morning. Afternoon parade for O.C. inspection. Boots have disc Etc. Mounted guard Bgd H.Q. at 4pm. Very cold. H. Olsen left for Machine gun school at Grant.

July 6th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Warm day. Relieved 2pm. Writing and Concert YM. Received mail from home.

Sunday July 7th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Warm. Missed parade. Writing and meals at Officers Mess

July 8th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Usual games and Jerks. Afternoon Kit inspection. Paid 1 £. Pictures.

July 9th 1918 Sandhill Camp

Cold morning missed bath parade. Afternoon off. Raining. Fall in 4pm moved off at 8.20 entrained and left Warminster at 11pm. Travelled all night. Train crowded

July 10th 1918 Folkestone

Arrived at Shorncliff at 5am and marched about 1 ½ miles to Folkstone. A very fine place with fine residential buildings. A big block taken over by war department and used as a rest camp. We had breakfast and rested and embarked at 10.15. arrived at Boulogne at 11.30 and marched up a very steep hill to camp. Sleeping all afternoon. After tea went into Boulogne but away from the Beach. It was dirty and unattractive. We were interested in manouvers of a seaplane. Back to camp early and attended a concert given by Yankee troops. Good.

July 11th 1918 Boulogne

Breakfast 7.30. marched to train. Left Boulogne. Usual 30 odd in truck. Shook a can of cream at one station. Living high. Reached Harfluer at 3am next Morning.

July 12th 1918 Harfleur

Marched from Station. Raining. Got blankets and turned in. Revellie at 6am. Morning free.

Afternoon Gas parade at old Bull ring. Got back at 6.30 too late for anything. Writing home.

July 13th 1918 Harfleur

Morning Med parade and shortages. Afternoon Red X comforts got cigarettes and reading. Parade 3pm for inspection and marched out at 4pm, entrained at 6 but didn’r leave Havre till 9.30. seen Airship over R.T.A. camp at Harfluer. Travelling all night.

Sunday July 14th 1918 Pernoise

Arrived at Pernoise at 11.45 and marched back to St Leger (raining) to reinforcement Wing. Afternoon fine. Dr parade complained of state of my lungs and was examined and detailed for Medical Board next day. Marked M.D.

July 14th 1918 St Leger

Fine. Parade 7.30. breakfast. Morning off. Afternoon Board A.D.M.S. marked Unfit and detailed for Base. Taken off draft. Met M. Butfield and J. Brazzendale.

July 15th 1918 St Leger

Raining. Cleared later. Rest of draft moved out to join Batt. Afternoon sleeping. Night Concert by Cooees 3rd Div party. Good. [The German army mounted an offensive, crossing the Marne against the French.]

July 17th 1918 St Leger

Volenteered for Baggage guard. On from 9 till 8.30. Hot all day thunderstorm at night. Account of German attack

on a 50 mile front. Broke down great slaughter at Rheims. Met H. Williams.

July 18th 1918 St Leger

Morning no duty. Afternoon escort ½ hour. Evening Cooees. Yanks and French holding Fritz. [The French, with American divisions, counter-attacked at Villers-Cotter&ecaret;ts, resulting in a German retreat.]

July 19th 1918 St Leger

Cloudy. 9.30 Baggage guard till 12. Parade at 1.30 moved out and entrained St Leger at 2.30. arrived at Roma Camp at 9pm and slept at Canteen till 2am. Left at 2.30. Crowded train 40 in truck as far as Rouen. 250 prisoners on also.

July 20th 1918 Harfleur

Arrived Harfluer 10.30am. Reached Base for dinner. Raining. Afternoon report to Adj. Evening pictures and Pathescope. Met Bill Simpson of Casterton.

Sunday July 21st 1918 Harfleur

8.30. Col address re rout at Havre. Leave stopped. Dr Parade and shortages. Evening Service in glen. Padre’s “n” Stunts etc. Band.

July 22nd 1918 Harfleur

Fine. Board B2 to P.B. Afternoon writing. Night pictures. Raining.

July 23rd 1918 Harfleur

Revellie 6. Writing and billiards and meeting mates. Night pictures then Concert.

July 24th 1918 Harfleur

Fine, later rain. Morning writing. Afternoon billiards and writing. Pictures

and later lecture by Padre.

[The command-in-chief of the Allied forces decides to initiate a full offensive.]

July 25th 1918 Harfleur

[transferred to Australian Employment Company] Rain. Warned to prepare to move out. Afternoon Dr Parade. Moved out 4.15. Motor to Havre (no rifle or ammunition). Several seaplanes about. Entrained at 10pm left 12.15. big stack of comfort fund stuff at station. Got cigarettes (salvaged).

July 26th 1918 Rouen

Arrived at Rouen at 7.15am and marched about a kilo to rest camp at Bonsecours for breakfast. Dumped equipment on roadside laid down till dinner time. Interested in barge traffic on Seine. Got 4 hours leave and went into Rouen First of all seeing through Cathedral at Bonsecours. Some splendid work there both inside and out. The Oak carvings and tombs being splendid. Then into Rouen. A nice City with Seine running through it. There are three fine bridges over river, the 1st one being very high out of water to allow foreign shipping to come up to wharves. There’s a novel ferry here being swung

from the high platform of bridge and conveys Vehicular traffic as well as passengers across being clear of water. The City is the same as any other with its Modern shops and the usual market square where anything, mostly rubbish, can be bought cheap. The Custom in vogue in France is not to pay the waitresses any wages in Cafes. They depend on the generosity of Patrons for there living. There are notices on the walls to that effect. Away from Central part of City is the same dirty places seen anywhere in France. The Brothels are run openly and are advertised by special lights. The thing that struck me most was the large amount of Barge traffic and was interesting to watch. Barges would be loaded till there decks were nearly water level then a tug would take as many as 7 or 8 in tow and away they would go and every Barge seemed to have a

family on board. So it would be a cheap living. Well after seeing what we could of the place (Views sent home) we got back to camp in time for tea and had to put up with the usual horde of dirty cadging kids with there plaintive cries of Boolee Beef, Biscee etc Laid down then to sleep but rained and we sought shelter in Y.M. leaving our packs out covered with our groundsheets. We left at 11pm and entrained this time fortunately 5 of us in a carriage so with one sleeping on the floor the others could stretch out comfortable and sleep while travelling. We eventually arrived at Pernoise (next station to St Leger) at 9.15am. So I had again travelled the same line.

July 27th 1918 Pernois

Showery. A party of us went to Bertocourt ½ way to St Leger for gas lecture and got back for dinner. Lying about afternoon during tea I heard the Batt Band were at station so went over and seen

Mac and others. They were going to Corps School at Rue to play for a month. We had a long yarn etc. they left at 10pm and I went to Billet and Bed.

Sunday July 28th 1918 Pernois

Breakfast at 7.30 then went to Motor lorries and left at 8.30am going through Halloy, Havernas, Wargnies, Flescelles (big place) on to Bertangles arriving in time for dinner. Reported to O.C. “Major Berry” and after being told to report for duty next day was shown to Billet. After Tea the 3rd Pioneer Band played a program of music in Chatrau grounds. Met G. Hunt playing with them.

July 29th 1918 Bertangles

Reported at 9am detailed for Sgt Mess it being a good job and indoors. Finished at seven and then went to Aerodrome close by and was interested in the flying. Some of the pilots were very clever. It was here I seen some splendid work in the air. Some of the Machines doing more than the birds can do, such flying on back, side slipping etc

July 30th 1918 Bertangles

Rise at 7 Breakfast 8. Usual day three meals average nine at Mess. Finished at 7 with about two hours morning and Afternoon. Evening Aerodrome and Pictures.

July 31st 1918 Bertangles

Usual day. Evening watching planes and later YMCA tent writing. Seen Chateau from outside the grounds. A fine big building

August 1st 1918 Bertangles

Fine day warm. During Night dropped bombs next Village. Evening Planes and Concert by Smart Set (4th Div Party). Very good. Met J. Ingram from High St formally worked at Nankervis.

August 2nd 1918 Bertangles

Raining all day. Evening writing at Y.M. Hear long range Gun close by. Believe it is in Ameins about 4 Kilo. Heard H. McColl (Major) is in Camp.

August 3rd. Sat 1918 Bertangles

Raining again. Evening Aerodrome (clear). Banking slipping etc. Chance to go up (not for mine). Later Pictures.

Sunday August 4th 1918 Bertangles

Same usual work. Morning muster, gas parade, test mask. Evening Band and seen several of the guns taken by 3rd Div.

August 5th 1918 Bertangles

Crook diahrea.

August 6th 1918 Bertangles

Showery. Usual work. Washing, Big push and good progress all along line. French advance six miles between Soisson and Rheims. Evening writing Y.M.

August 7th 1918 Bertangles

Fine usual. During afternoon Fritz over but very high. Driven off Anti Air C. Evening at Aerodrome and Y.M.

August 8th 1918 Bertangles

Fine. Big offensive 5 Aus Divs. Good reports. Early first objective before time. Light Cas. By evening all objectives taken and over 3000 prisoners and several heavy guns. Y.M. draughts. [The 2nd and 3rd divisions made a surprise attack at 4.20am in heavy fog, protected by artillery. By 7.30am, they had taken the front German trenches, and the 4th and 5th divisions passed through. British Mark V tanks were followed up by the Canadian and Australian infantry, with most of the Somme being taken within four days.]

August 9th 1918 Bertangles

Fine. Usual day. Good reports of Yesterday stunt 7000 prisoners 160 guns, machine guns, transports etc. Advanced seven miles at furthest point. Line now includes Chipelly, Framerville, Caise Boucourt and Plessier. The tanks doing great work getting through the infantry and among the supply Columns and Motor Cars. Evening Pictures.

August 10th 1918 Bertangles

Fine. Usual. Still good reports slight advance. Total now 17000 Prisoners, over 200 heavies and Red Cross train complete. Cavalry doing good work. Aust flag hoisted on German H.Q. at Harboniers. Line now Chipelly, Pirrepont, Rosieres and near big railway Junction at Chaubnes. Our batteries commanding it

Sunday August 11th 1918 Bertangles

Fine. Washing and Gas lecture. Tested mask. Night Band at Chateau. Several guns, Trench morters, machine guns and anti tank rifles all 3rd Div captives brought in to Chateau. Heard 37th were cut up. Maj Knox-Knight killed. Talk of moving to Glisy [The offensive is now to be ended, after heavy casualties with the divisions becoming caught up in the rough ground of the Somme battlefields.]

King George arriving to knight General Monash
August 12th 1918 Bertangles

Fine. About 100 Captured guns at Chateau. King visited 2pm. Big ceremony Gen Monash knighted. Boys still going ahead. 37th Casualties heavy.

August 13th 1918 Bertangles

Breakfast at 6 then packed up ready to move. Got transport at 11am. Rode on wagon through Pouilainville, Ameins, Camon and Blagney to Glisy. Arrived at 3.30pm. House to outselves two good rooms.

August 14th 1918 Glisy

Warm. Slept well. Fritz over bombing near by during night. Many search lights and anti Air craft going. Received letters from home (3), Mrs Mac and Con.

August 15th 1918 Glisy

Hot. Usual day and cleaning up. Received reg letter from home Children and […] Lodge card. Prisoners to date 28000, guns 600. Fritz over again during night.

August 16th 1918 Glisy

Cloudy later fine. Pay day 40F Transferred from 37th. Crook diahrea. The Red Cross train taken from Fritz brought through. No advance. Total 38340.

August 17th 1918 Glisy

Cloudy but kept fine. Now hard pressing Roye and Chaulnes. Writing home and lodge. Fritz quiet.

Sunday August 18th 1918 Glisy

Fine and cool. Fritz over day time high up. Writing.

August 19th 1918 Glisy

Cloudy light rain. Still crook diarhrea. Fine clear night. Heard heavy Bombarding towards morning.

August 20th 1918 Glisy

Hot. Usual day. Heard of successful French offensive on 9 mile front N of Soissons. 1700 Prisoners since Sunday.

August 21st 1918 Glisy

Hot Usual work. Crook with Dioreahear. Reports favourable of French (taken Royes). 3rd Army doing well around Albert. [The British and French armies had mounted a major attack in the Bapaume area near Albert.]

August 22nd 1918 Glisy

Very hot all day. Usual work. Afternoon swimming (Ausy drowned cramp). Evening washing. Fritz planes over during day and night. Heard Aust Gns were going over the top.

August 23rd 1918 Glisy

Fine not so hot. Very heavy Barrage at 5am. Later at 9 heard 3RD Div got a cutting up taking objective twice. French 2 mile off Moyon.

August 24th 1918 Glisy

Fine and cooler. Usual day. Night writing home. Several Planes over. Heavy Anti Air Barrage and tracer bullets. Bombed Bertangles Aerodrome got Petrol dump and few machines. About 50 casualties the Boys at a concert. Aust troops took Bray capturing 2500 prisoners. The line now from the bank of Somme at Bray includes (Carlliers, Thrapvale, Grancourt) by Welsh division and on outskirt of Bapaurne. (New Zealanders).

Sunday August 25th 1918 Glisy

Fine. Cool. Fritz over early. Quiet day. Line now getting close to Bapaurne, Grandcourt to Bray, Chaulnes etc.

August 26th 1918 Glisy

Fine. Fritz over during day turned by Anti A Craft. Nothing unusual. Bed early. Fritz over again during night. Heard 10 bombs.

August 27th 1918 Glisy

Cloudy and showery all day. Good reports from the line. Advanced S. of Albert to Marmet nne and N of Roye at Goyencourt. Bed early.

August 28th 1918 Glisy

Raining. Showers all day. Reports of big advance from Albert to near Roye. Now taking in Curlu Guillemont Fay Estre. Two miles past Chaulnco and taken Nesle. No reports of further South. During afternoon 25 planes went over Poor Fritz.

August 29th 1918 Glisy

Cloudy fine usual day Received letter from Mac and answered it. Boys still advancing. Captured 11” and 15” Guns that were shelling Amiens.

August 30th 1918 Glisy

Dull but kept fine. Rumered Aust taken Perrone line now along S bank of Somme from Curlu to Pargny and East of Nesle. No reports from French further S. Talk of H.Q. moving nearer line now 22 miles. Visit by Brownie.

August 31st 1918 Glisy

Usual (dinner early). Packed up ready to move further up. Motor transport at 2pm through Blangy, Tronville, Villers Bretonneux , Le Hamel, Morcourt to Merricourt. Knocked about, very few

good roofs and some leveled to ground. All doors etc taken off. After tea up till bed time (late) blocking up holes in walls and doorways etc and making the place comfortable.

map of the Australian corps campaign in the Somme, 1918
Sunday September 1st 1918 Merricourt

[On September 1st, five Australian brigades attacked Mont Saint Quentin. Infantry with their Lewis guns and grenades survived a rain of artillery and a counter-attack by the German Guards division.]

Usual. Had to carry water rations, etc. Salvaging

September 2nd 1918 Merricourt

Dull, showery. Salvaging. Looking around afternoon about 2 prisoners came here. Peronne cleaned out by 3rd & 5th Div

September 3rd 1918 Merricourt

Usual day. Fine. Washing. Fritz over during night. Any amount of searchlights. Evening went through cemetery, church, etc. Not much damage. Vaults looted. Hundreds of [-] buried.

September 4th 1918 Merricourt

[-] Filed mess all back. Since [-] well through old Hindenburg S.E. of Arras 1/2 way between Bahumes & Car[-] & well E of Peronne & about 2 mile E of Nesle Rumours of breaking the Mess up. Writing Mother, Claude

September 5th 1918 Merricourt

Usual day. showery & during tea rained heavy coming through everywhere & drove us down the cellar night. Fixing up cellar for sleeping in.

September 6th 1918 Merricourt

Fine all day. Usual work. Evening finished early went over the German H.Q. [-] of hill. Fixed up well. Everything carted from village & they were very comfortable [-] houses [-]underground. 1st Div went through.

September 7th 1918 Merricourt

Nice day. Fairly hot afternoon. Usual day. In swimming at river. Moving up nearer the line. Got letters from Con.

September 5th 1918 Merricourt
Sunday September 8th 1918 Merricourt

Fine. Usual day. Evening writing. Bed early

September 9th 1918 Merricourt

Fine. Hear we are to move further up tomorrow & mess to break up. Writing & bed early. Raining a treat.

September 10th 1918 Merricourt

Cold & showery. Usual day. Heard we move up tomorrow but as yet nothing official. No report of advance Fritz. Hearing all sorts of dirty traps,etc. Not safe to souvenir.

September 11th 1918 Merricourt

Cold. Usual day. Heard moving tomorrow. Writing, etc. Latest mining stunt of Fritz nailing live cat to a door & when nails are pulled mine explodes

September 12th 1918 Merricourt

Cloudy. Breakfast & lunch as usual then packed up & got motor lorry at 2pm through Chengnolles Chuignes Dompere & Ausvilleres to camp on hill [-] huts (German). Dumped our gear with Sg to Mess letter [-] [-] at [-]. Madden Wingate missing. B[-] blind.

September 13th 1918 Assevillers

Showery. Reported at mess offside to Slushie out in the open washing up etc. Not much to do. Went walking over hill. Many German dugouts. No souveniring. Latest German trap mining dead Fritz.

September 14th 1918 Assevillers

During night Fritz over. Four brought down by Anti A.C. Seen one in flames to ground. Fine. Had to report afternoon at S.O.C. mess for work offside to cook. Easy but long hours. Carrying water.

Sunday September 15th 1918 Assevillers

Easy day. Fine. Not much to do.

September 16th 1918 Assevillers

Fine. Usual good meals. Not feeling too god. Ted Hogan went on leave to Blighty. On coming back to take charge of mess.

September 17th 1918 Assevillers

Fine. Storm during night. Received mail from [-] Doll, Claude. Con & Edinburgh. Writing. Not well.

September 18th 1918 Assevillers

Usual day. Working kitchen & writing letters.

September 19th 1918 Assevillers

Raining. Usual work. Heard of Ausies hopping over. Writing.

September 20th 1918 Assevillers

Rain, showery. Usual. Received letter Cec Condy now Lance[?] Jack[?] Ern Sgt Jack gassed. Cpl.

September 21st 1918 Assevillers

Finer. Usual work. Received parcel from home. Claude. Washing

Sunday September 22nd 1918 Assevillers

Fine. Usual. Writing

September 23rd 1918 Assevillers

Finer. Usual work during day. Several planes over very high. Night heavy barrages.

September 24th 1918 Assevillers

Fine. Barrage continued all night & day. French offensive on our left.

September 25th 1918 Assevillers

Rain. Nothing unusual.

September 26th 1918 Assevillers

Raining, showery. Writing to Edinburgh

September 27th 1918 Assevillers

Showery. Crook chest. Received letters from Mac & Cec[?]

September 28th 1918 Assevillers

Cloudy. Heard [-] [-]. Crook during evening. Lot of planes [-] over. Big Ausie offensive tomorrow.

[The following day saw the allies break through the Hindenburg line at St Quentin Canal despite heavy fighting.]

Sunday September 29th 1918 Assevillers

Sick. Med[-]

September 30th 1918 Assevillers

Snr cook visit during lunch. Fine day. At night hearing barrage. Rumours of 37th being split up. All object. Won't work.

[The 37th battalion had gone on strike after their commanding officer was dismissed for formally questioning the order to disband. The order was suspended until October 12th.]

October 1st 1918 Assevillers

Morning 2nd 3rd 5th Ausies hopped over with Yanks on Sunday. Yanks leading overan Germans in tunnels nearly disastrous on account of Fritz getting between them.

October 2nd 1918 Assevillers

Fine day. Visit Sir Gilbert Parker novelist. Usual went to M.O. & receiving treatment for Bronchitis.

October 3rd 1918 Assevillers

Usual day. Feeling crook

October 4th 1918 Assevillers

Usual day. Feeling no better. In bed all afternoon. heard Ted back off leave. Bulgaria surrendered unconditionally.

October 5th 1918 Assevillers

Cold day. Went to Sgts. mess. [-] Ted Hogan. Heard that Turks want peace & Germany want a 14 day Armistice to discuss peace terms.

Sunday October 6th 1918 Assevillers

Reported sick & evacuated per motor to Peronne 20th CCS

October 7th 1918 Peronne

At CCS. Fair meals. Left at 4pm motor at [-] at peronne. Left at about 7 pm & travelled all night. Arrived at Rouen at 8.30am

October 8th 1918 Rouen

Rouen reached 6. General at 12. Poor meals & had to ask for extra blanket. Very cold.

October 9th 1918 Rouen

Woke up at 5am to wash. Breakfast 7. Very poor grub. Writing Ted & Dick Mack.

October 10th 1918 Rouen

Shifted into a different ward & instead of Bronchitis marked for Nephritis & put on milk diet.

October 11th 1918 Rouen

Starved. Wrote to Mack. Told by one sister a cert for Blighty. Wrote to Base to hold up my mail.

October 12th 1918 Rouen

Usual day. Wrote to Doll & Mother. Held back long letter to Doll.

Sunday October 13th/14th 1918 Rouen

Usual starvation. Germany except [sic] peace terms [-]. Still fighting going on. Believed to be a trap of Germany. No armistice. Still waiting Blighty.

October 15th 1918 Rouen

Usual day. Dr visit & marked for Blighty. Expect to leave tonight. Still on light diet. Big convoys every day coming and going. Few Ausies [-] Tommies & Yanks.

October 16th 1918 Rouen

Convoy left last night. Missed. Usual day. Light diet. Wrote Mrs Wilson. Told be leaving during night. Woke up at 12 to get ready.

October 17th 1918 Rouen

Usual day. Left at 2 [-] for [-]. First on boat at 11 A[-] Panama. Left at 1 pm & after 1 hour sail anchored [-] at [-]pm. Good meals & [-]y.

October 18th 1918 Southampton

Reached S'hampton early morn. Anchored [-] & reached docks at 12.45. Disembarked at 1. Entrained at 4. Arrived Bath 9 pm (Boat Panama)

October 19th 1918 Bath

Woke up 5 to wash. Still on light diet but better than in France. Plenty fresh milk.

Sunday October 20th 1918 Bath

Usual morn. Dr examined Bronchitis Nephritis.

October 21st 1918 Bath

Wrote Mrs Wilson. Base, Usual day. Wrote Ted & No 84 Doll. Got a badge Ausie to work in silk. Concert in ward evening.

October 22nd 1918 Bath

Wrote Mother. Started badge. Good meals etc.

October 23rd 1918 Bath

Wrote Mac & working on badge. Paid 3/6. Taggart of B. Coy 37th came into ward. Feeling no better.

October 24th 1918 Bath

Usual day. Working on badge. Wrote to Ern.

October 25th 1918 Bath

Usual day. Nothing unusual. Still talk of peace negotiations

October 26th 1918 Bath

Not feeling too well. Slight pains in chest.

Sunday October 27th 1918 Bath

October 28th 1918 Bath

Usual. Wrote Doll 88. Examined by Dr. Severe pains in chest. Bronchitis. Rubbing liniment Urine test worse.

October 29th 1918 Bath

Still crook. Plasters, hot water bottles. Received personal property out of Pack. Back 3 Bendig'ns

October 30th 1918 Bath

Feeling better. Pains not so severe. Rumours of peace with Turkey & Austria. Wrote Lin

October 31st 1918 Bath

Usual. New offensive by French & Italians in Italy & British in Flanders. Big success in Palestine.

November 1st 1918 Bath

Turkey surrender unconditionally Dardanells open to Allie fleet. Italian success Austria [-]ing

November 2nd 1918 Bath

Usual. Examined again by M.O. lungs still crook. Still advancing on Western front. Received batch of mail, more to come.

Sunday November 3rd 1918 Bath

November 4th 1918 Bath

Usual day, cold morning. Reported surrender of Austria unconditionally.

November 5th 1918 Bath

Usual. Surrender informed officially. Flu epidemic at its height in Scotland Ireland & Eng.

November 6th 1918 Bath

Received rest of mail. nothing unusual

November 7th 1918 Bath
Australian coat of arms needlework

Finished badge. Talk of Armistice on Western Front. Germany in revolt. Mutiny in Navy

November 8th 1918 Bath

German envoys visit to Foch H.Q.. No armistice granted. Courier sent back with peace conditions.

November 9th 1918 Bath

Lord Mac[-] show in London said to be best ever seen. People in high spirit on account of [-] Peace.

Sunday November 10th 1918 Bath

Cold. Sleeping all day

November 11th 1918 Bath

Cold morning. Wrote Bell, Claude, May[?] Armistice signed by Germany.

November 12th 1918 Bath

Great excitement in London over Armistice. People out of hand in West End. Practically peace. Health improving.

November 13th 1918 Bath

Bonfires in Trafalgar Square. Australians set fire to travelling workshed and took hose of firemen & turned it on them. Received mail from home. Nurses gave party in ward.

November 14th 1918 Bath

Very cold & frosty. Still improving. Big crowd of our Boys left for Harefield. Writing Doll 87

November 15th 1918 Bath

Cold. nothing unusual. Germans evacuating France & arranging to hand over fleet to be interned N of Scotland.

November 16th 1918 Bath

Not so cold expect to get up next week. received parcel from home. Bendigonian Cigs etc. also letter written to Mac returned marked not with Battn.

Sunday November 17th 1918 Bath

Cold usual day. Evening singing hymns

November 18th 1918 Bath

Usual day working badge KCLI

November 19th 1918 Bath

Usual. Nothing startling. Getting up afternoons weak & shaky.

November 20th 1918 Bath

Beaty[?] met representatives of German Navy 20 Subs interned. music prog. in ward.

November 21st 1918 Bath

Ceremony in N.Sea cream of German boats handed over. writing home 88 got new badge

November 22nd 1918 Bath

Cold. pains in chest. up to date 49 subs interned in S of Eng. turned out nice sunny afternoon

November 23rd 1918 Bath

Not as bad still very cold working on badge

Sunday November 24th 1918 Bath

Usual

November 25th 1918 Bath

Major around marking out patients.

November 26th 1918 Bath

Warmer got up in afternoon as usua.l Several Ausies marked for Dartford.

November 27th 1918 Bath

Raining. ADMS[?] from Horsferrie Road around clearing hospitals for return [-]

November 28th 1918 Bath

Rain light. All Americans left for Devon. Writing PC views of Bath to Doll

November 29th 1918 Bath

Papers taken to Officer marked out. Don't know where yet. Printing Photos

November 30th 1918 Bath

Cold. Asked Dr to examine my lungs (lot of Bronchitis). Not allowed to knock about, keep warm when out of bed. Printing Photos.

Sunday December 1st 1918 Bath
Royal Scots regiment needlework

December 2nd 1918 Bath

Raining. Up all day. Finished Scots badge, got two to work on boat (Suffolk & ASC) marched Harefield on Thursday. setting[?] case

December 3rd 1918 Bath

Showery, not too cold. Medicine changed. Severe bilious attack, in bed all day. Doing badges for (sharps[?]) mother.

December 4th 1918 Bath

Just same all day in bed, eating nothing at all. Sick, blame medicine

December 5th 1918 Bath

Improvement. Knocked off medicine. Up Afternoon. Concert in ward evening good, especially dancers Received letter Wilson

December 6th 1918 Bath

Raining. Up nearly all day. Change of diet. Fixing drinks. Medium[?] in Holland on way home (invitation)

December 7th 1918 Bath

Raining all day. Usual day. Working on badge (Stafford) for people of lad that died here.

Sunday December 8th 1918 Bath

Fine. Usual day. Singing hymns night.

December 9th 1918 Bath

Cold. [-] Wed for Dartford draw. Coat, boots and hat (setting case)

December 10th 1918 Bath

Cold. Drew rest of clothes ready to go. (Strecher case) Finish badge.

December 11th 1918 Bath

Raining. Wouldn't let me go s[-] of Boys. Another week, then Harefield. Well satisfied, bed all day.

December 12th 1918 Bath

Mild, raining. [-] during afternoon. Started on Suffolk badge. Wrote to Wilson and Blue Brennan.

December 13th 1918 Bath

Mild weather. Usual day.

December 14th 1918 Bath

Cold. Usual day. Heard no ones to leave for Harefield till after Xmas.

Sunday December 15th 1918 Bath

Usual. Waiting for mail

December 16th 1918 Bath

Up most of day. Received letter from Medium[?]. Home again. Started on [-]Badge special.

December 17th 1918 Bath

Up early. Cold. Received mail from home. Photo by McBennet. Bed early, tired. Wrote to Medium[?] . News of Mac.

December 18th 1918 Bath

Usual day. Writing 91 Doll (Papers) again return and marked Harefield and off next week. Paid 3/6

December 19th 1918 Bath

Cold. examined again by Dr. Bronchitis (dry) & Nephritis [-] wrote Cec for particulars Mack.

December 20th 1918 Bath

Nice day. Usual

December 21st 1918 Bath

Cold. Billious attack. Decorating ward for Xmas.

Sunday December 22nd 1918 Bath

December 23rd 1918 Bath

Usual. Cold, fines up afternoon. Still biliious. Decorating

December 24th 1918 Bath

Cold. In bed all day. Concert and games afternoon & night. Better. Xmas stocking - handkers, wallet, fruit, etc.

Christmas Day December 25th 1918 Bath

Fine but no sun. Dinner turkey, veg, Pud. fruit, nuts, lollies, drinks, cigars and big afternoon & night concert & games till late. Tea cakes, etc. Ausie X boxs.

December 26th 1918 Bath

Sleeping all morning. Cold. Afternoon concert & party - cakes, pies, coffee. Night games. Got 2lb of jam Miss (Grooms[?])

December 27th 1918 Bath

Cold & raining, similar yesterday. No [-]. Party games, etc.

December 28th 1918 Bath

Cold. Up all day by fires. Received letter & card from Medium[?]. Wrote No 92 Doll. Dr examined & recommended Ausy direct.

Sunday December 29th 1918 Bath

Very cold. Bed all day.

[On January 4th he was transferred to the Australian Military Hospital in Sutton with bronchitis, and then on the 16th to the Australian General hospital with nephritis.]

HMAAT Wandilla

[William was repatriated back to Australia on the 31st of March prior to his battalion, on HMAAT Wandilla from Southhampton. He died on April 20th 1919 of tuberculosis before they reached Colombo, and was buried at sea.]

Brig General H.E.E. Elliott
C.B. C.M.G. D.S.O. D.C.M.

Brigadier General Elliott at Samer

Major General Sir J. J. Talbot Hobbs
K.C.B. V.D. 5th Division A.I.F.

Major General Talbot Hobbs at Ham-sur-Heure

Major Gen Sir J. Monash K.C.B.
V.D. 3rd Division

Major General Monash at Glisy

Memories

commemorative scroll