Linux recipes

networking

configuration

	apt install resolvconf
	vi /etc/network/interfaces
		address, netmask, network, broadcast, gateway, dns-nameservers
		wireless-essid, wireless-key s:
	

network card buffer overflows

	# set noapic in boot options
	

install wpa

	# edit /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules to set interface name to wlan0
	apt install wpasupplicant
	wpa_passphrase ssid >>/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
	vi /etc/network/interfaces
		auto wlan0
		iface wlan0 inet dhcp
			wpa-driver wext
			wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
	# install 2.6.30 kernel
	# install agere firmware see http://wiki.debian.org/orinoco into /lib/firmware
	ifup wlan0
	apt install wireless-tools
		iwlist wlan0 scan
	

bridge two interfaces

	apt install bridge-utils
	vi /etc/network/interfaces
		auto br0
		iface eth0 inet manual
		iface eth1 inet manual
		iface br0 inet dhcp
			bridge_ports eth0 eth1
	

bridge tap into network

	vi /etc/network/interfaces
	# setup bridge
		iface br0 inet static
			address 192.168.1.2
			netmask 255.255.255.0
			gateway 192.168.1.1
			bridge_ports eth0 tap0
	# change eth0 to manual
		iface eth0 inet manual
	# setup tap
		iface tap0 inet static
			pre-up tunctl -u user -t tap0
			post-down tunctl -d tap0
			address 192.168.2.1
			netmask 255.255.255.0
	# ensure tap created before bridge
	auto tap0 br0
	

file sharing from Windows

	apt install smbfs
	apt install cifs-utils
	smbclient -U user -L ip-address
	mkdir tmp
	smbmount //ip-address/x tmp -o user=user
	mount -t cifs -o username=user -o domain=host //host/user mountpoint
	

remote access via ssh

	apt install ssh # secure shell
	scp . server:~
	ssh-keygen # setup RSA login key
		scp *.pub server:.ssh
		cat *.pub >>authorized_keys # on server
	vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
		set X11Forwarding yes
	vi /etc/ssh/ssh_config
		ControlMaster auto
		ControlPath ~/.ssh/%r@%h:%p
	/etc/init.d/ssh restart
	ssh -X $REMOTE
	ssh -L 2022:client2:22 server; ssh -X -p 2022 localhost # port forward to second client
	

remote backups

	apt_get install rsync
		rsync /src /dst -a --del
		rsync /src server:/dst -az --del -e ssh
	

rsync using remote fakeroot

	# mount dst with user_xattr set in fstab
	rsync -a --del /src backup@server:/dst --rsync-path='rsync --fake-super' -e 'ssh -i /home/backup/.ssh/id_rsa'
	

VPN tunnel via PPTP

	vi /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
		username PPTP password *
	vi /etc/ppp/peers/tunnel
		pty "pptp server --nolaunchpppd"
		name username
		remotename PPTP
		file /etc/ppp/options.pptp
		ipparam tunnel
		require-mppe-128
	vi /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/tunnel
		#!/bin/sh
		if [ "$PPP_IPPARAM" = "tunnel" ]; then
			route add -net 192.168.subnet.0/24 dev $IFNAME
		fi
	chmod +x /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/tunnel
	pon tunnel
	poff tunnel
	

VPN through openvpn

	apt install openvpn
	cp *.crt *.key .openvpn
	chmod 400 .openvpn
	vi /etc/default/openvpn
		AUTOSTART=NONE
	vi .openvpn/client.conf
		remote vpn-server 1194
		ca ca.crt
		cert cert.crt
		key key.key
		tls-auth ta.key 1
		cipher AES-256-CBC
	su openvpn client.conf
	

modem

	cd /usr/src
	wget http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/packages/ltmodem/kernel-2.6/ltmodem-2.6-alk-8.tar.bz2
	bzip -d *.bz2
	tar xf *.tar
	cd ltmodemX
	make
	mknod --mode=0660 /dev/ttyLT0 c 62 64
	chown :dialout /dev/ttyLT0
	ln /dev/ttyLT0 /dev/modem
	mkdir /lib/modules/2.6.8-X/kernel/drivers/modem
	cp /usr/src/ltmodem*/lt*.ko /lib/modules/2.6.8*/kernel/drivers/modem
	depmod -a
	vi /etc/modprobe.d/aliases
		alias char-major-62 ltserial
		alias ttyLT0 ltserial
		alias modem ltserial
	modprobe ltserial
	pppconfig
		phone_number
		dhcp
		username, password
	pon
	

voip

	apt install kphone
		# no stun, though can use stun.wirlab.net:3478
		# xxxxxx@freephone.engin.com.au
		# prefer codec iLBC, then G711a
	apt install ekiga
		# need to route ports SIP 5060, RTP 8000
	

skype

	vi /etc/apt/sources.list
		dep http://download.skype.com/linux/repos/debian/ stable non-free
	apt install skype
	LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/libv4l/v4l1compat.so skype
	

remote desktop

	apt install rdesktop
	rdesktop 192.168.X.X
		-f # sets window full screen
		-r disk:directory=/home/user/directory # shares client directory
		-g 1024x768 -g 1280x800
	ctrl-alt-enter # turn off full screen
	

restart network

	/etc/init.d/networking restart
	

accessing local network client names under NT domains

	apt install winbind
	vi /etc/nsswitch.conf
		# add wins to hosts
	

reverse ssh

	crontab -e
		if ! ps -C autossh >/dev/null; then [autossh]; fi
	autossh -f -p 10022 -R 10022:localhost:22 client -fN # from server
	ssh -p 10022 localhost # from client
	

DNS for dynamic IP

	# setup at www.dyndns.org
	apt install inadyn
	vi /etc/inadyn.conf
		update_period_sec 600
		username user
		password password
		dyndns_system dyndns@dyndns.org
		alias name
		iterations 1
	chmod 600 /etc/inadyn.conf
	crontab -e
		0 0 * * * /usr/sbin/inadyn
	

securing ports

	apt remove nfs-common rpcbind
	vi /etc/inetd.conf
		# comment out ident line
	/etc/init.d/openbsd-inetd restart
	

pcmcia bus for Xircom network card

	pccardctl info
	ifdown eth0
	pccardctl eject
	rmmod xirc2ps_cs
	modprobe xirc2ps_cs
	pccardctl insert
	ifup eth0
	

controlling multiple interfaces

	route add X0.X1.X2.X3 eth0
	route add 192.168.2.1 wlan0
	route add 192.168.2.2 wlan1
	iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -d 192.168.2.1 -j DNAT --to X0.X1.X2.X3 -o wlan0
	iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -d 192.168.2.2 -j DNAT --to X0.X1.X2.X3 -o wlan1
	

show and scan available ports

	nmap ip
	

spoof MAC

	ifdown eth0
	ifconfig eth0 hw ether mac-address
	ifup eth0
	

guessnet automatic network settings

	apt install guessnet
	vi /etc/network/interfaces
		mapping eth0
			script guessnet-ifupdown
			map default: default
			map timeout: 10
			map verbose: true
			map autofilter: true
		iface eth0-home inet static
			test peer address router-ip mac router-mac source own-ip
				# network settings
			iface default inet dhcp
	

change interface names

	vi /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules
	

override domain name servers

	vi /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf
		supersede domain-name-servers 8.8.8.8, 8.8.4.4; # google DNS
	

list network interfaces

	lshw -short -class network
	

show DNS records

	dig -t ANY example.org
	

wireshark

	sudo setcap cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin=eip /usr/bin/dumpcap
	wireshark
	

set full hostname of local machine

	vi /etc/hostname
		hostname
	vi /etc/hosts
		127.0.0.1 hostname.domain hostname localhost
	/etc/init.d/hostname.sh
	hostname --fqdn
	

regenerate default SSL certificates

	make-ssl-cert generate-default-snakeoil --force-overwrite
	

SSL certification (startssl.com)

	# validate domain
	openssl genrsa -aes256 -out domain.key 2048 # create key
	openssl req -new -key domain.key -out domain.csr # create request
	# submit request and save certificate
	# allow time for certificate to reach servers
	# copy to server
	openssl rsa -in domain.key -out /etc/ssl/private/domain.key # decrypt key
	wget http://www.startssl.com/certs/sub.class1.server.ca.pem
	cat domain.crt sub.class1.server.ca.pem >/etc/ssl/certs/startcom-domain-unified.crt
	

SSL certification (certbot through letsencrypt.org)

	# initial certificate and manual renewal
		git clone https://github.com/letsencrypt/letsencrypt # mainline
		apt install python-certbot # or repository
		certbot-auto certonly --manual -d domain -d *.domain
		# make challenge available under DNS and website
	# nginx
		vi /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
			ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain/fullchain.pem;
			ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/domain/privkey.pem;
		service nginx restart
	# gitlab certs
		settings->pages->domains.details->Edit
		@ turn off https forced if key has to be removed and added
		@ update fullchain and privkey
	# prosody certs
	# non-interactive renewal (not for nginx)
		certbot-auto renew
	

internet

replace mail transfer agent exim4 with smaller esmtp

	apt --purge install esmtp-run # removes exim4 daemon
	set fully qualified hostname
	vi .esmtprc
		hostname=smtp.gmail.com:587
		username="user@domain"
		password="password"
		starttls=required
	# add CNAME for sending machine in DNS records
	

sending mail with telnet

	telnet mail.iinet.net.au 25
	HELO iinet.net.au
	MAIL FROM: email
	RCPT TO: email
	DATA
		SUBJECT: test
		# blank line
		test
		.
	QUIT
	

install firefox

	apt install iceweasel mozplugger
	

install opera

	vi /etc/apt/sources.list
		deb http://deb.opera.com/opera/ stable non-free
		wget -O - http://deb.opera.com/archive.key | apt-key add -
	apt install opera
		remove tab bar
		history->memory cache=5Mb
		browsing->redraw after 5s
		browsing->no icons
		User Prefs->Turbo Mode=0
	

instant messaging

	apt install pidgin pidgin-otr
	

multimedia browser plugins

	apt install flashplayer-mozilla mozilla-mplayer
		add to opera plugins
	update-flashplugin-nonfree --install
	# OR
	# download flash_player_npapi_linux.x86_64.tar.gz
	tar -xzf flash_player_npapi_linux.x86_64.tar.gz
	mv libflashplayer.so /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/
	

install peer to peer

	apt install mldonkey-server mldonkey-gui # edonkey
	apt install gtk-gnutella # gnutella/limewire
	apt install transmission-gtk
	

unpacking mail file

	apt install munpack
	# put into export filter
	# export to mbox file
	munpack file.mbx
	

GPG privacy

	apt install gpgkeys seahorse
	gpg --gen-key # generate key pair
	gpg --send-keys --keyserver pgp.mit.edu key_id # upload public key
	gpg --recv-keys --keyserver pgp.mit.edu key_id # download public key
	gpg --fingerprint key_id # check a fingerprint
	gpg --sign-key key_id # sign a key
	gpg -ea -r email # encoding
	gpg -d test.file.asc # decoding
	gpg --clearsign # sign a text file
	gpg --verify # verify a signature
	gpg --edit-key email # edit key trust
		trust
	gpg --list-keys
	

GPG party sign using caff

	apt install signing-party
	caff -E -m yes keyid # mail back signed keys
		# select uids
		# check fingerprint
		showphoto # check photo
		sign # sign level 2
		quit # quit and send mail
	

GPG party import

	# save all signature.asc
	gpg --import *.asc
	gpg --keyserver pool.sks-keyservers.net --send-keys key_id # update own key to server
	

GPG key removal

	gpg --export-secret-key --export-options export-minimal --armor key_id
	gpg --delete-secret-keys key_id
	gpg --delete-key key_id
	

GPG published over DNS

	gpg --list-keys --fingerprint key_id # get the fingerprint
	gpg --export --armor key_id >key_id.pub.asc # get the key
	# add a DNS TXT record
		user._pka TXT "v=pka1;fpr=key_fingerprint;uri=https://domain/key_id.pub.asc"
	# test for the record
		dig +short user._pka.domain TXT
	# test with GPG
		echo 'test' | gpg --no-default-keyring --keyring /tmp/gpg-$$ --encrypt --armor --auto-key-locate pka -r email | gpg
	

GPG symmetric file encryption/decryption

	gpg --symmetric file
	gpg --output file --decrypt file.gpg
	

web site ftp upload transfer

	apt install sitecopy
	mkdir -m 700 .sitecopy
	touch .sitecopyrc
	chmod 600 .sitecopyrc
	vi .sitecopyrc
		site sitename
		server servername
		remote remoteroot
		local localroot
		username username
	sitecopy --init sitename # to initialize indexing
	sitecopy -o --update sitename # to update site
	

web site mirror

	wget -x --save-cookies cookies.txt --keep-session-cookies --post-data "p=blah&submit=login" login.php
	wget --load-cookies cookies.txt -mk -w 5 sitename
	

command line emailing

	echo '<html>' >messagefile
	echo '<h1>initial message</h1>' >>messagefile
	sed -e 's/$/<br>/' logfile >>messagefile
	echo '</html>' >>messagefile
	cat messagefile | mail -s 'log file' -a 'Content-type: text/html' recipient@mail.org
	

dns records for google hosted

	CNAME calendar,docs,www,user,mail ghs.google.com
	A @ 72.14.203.121
	MX @ aspmx.l.google.com,alt1.aspmx.l.google.com,alt2.aspmx.l.google.com,aspmx2.googlemail.com,aspmx3.googlemail.com
	SPF @ v=spf1 include:_spf.google.com ~all
	# mail check-auth@verifier.port25.com to check spf/dkim
	

fidonet

		wget http://techtinkering.com/downloads/ansifonts.tar.gz
		tar xvzf ansifonts.tar.gz; mv vga11x19.pcf /usr/share/fonts/X11/misc
		mkfontdir /usr/share/fonts/X11/misc/
		xset fp rehash
		rxvt -fn vga11x19 -bg black -fg white
			telnet theshackbbs.pepe.net.au
	

power management

acpi management

		apt install lm-sensors
		sensors-detect # install sensor modules
		sensors # check temperature
		acpitool -s # sleep
		acpitool -T # shows toshiba values
		acpitool -l 7 # sets LCD brightness
		# setup /etc/acpi/events, /etc/acpi/actions for ac adapter and power button
		apt install vbetool
		vbetool dpms off # turn off LCD backlight, not sure how to automate
		# comment out DPMS from xorg.conf
	

setting up UPS 3105

		apt install nut
		vi /etc/nut/ups.conf
			# pw3105
				driver = bcmxcp_usb
				port = auto
		upsdrvctl start
		vi /etc/nut/upsd.conf
			ACL all 0.0.0.0/0
			ACL localhost 127.0.0.1/32
			ACCEPT localhost
			REJECT all
		vi /etc/nut/upsd.users
			# nut
				password = password
				allowfrom = localhost
				upsmon master
		vi /etc/nut/upsmon.conf
			POWERDOWNFLAG /etc/killpower
			MONITOR pw3105@localhost 1 nut password master
			SHUTDOWNCMD "/sbin/shutdown -h +0"
		chown nut:nut /etc/nut/*
		chmod 640 /etc/nut/upsd.users /etc/nut/upsmon.conf
		upsd
		upsc pw3105@localhost ups.status # check status
		upsmon
		vi /etc/default/nut
			START_UPSD=yes
			START_UPSMON=yes
		apt install wmnut
		wmnut -w
	

power saving

		powertop
		echo 1500 >/proc/sys/vm/dirty_writeback_centisecs
	

fix powersave logging

		vi /etc/acpi/events/ac /etc/acpi/events/battery
			action=/etc/acpi/power.sh %e #  pass a parameter to power.sh 
	

display

check 3D access

		apt install mesa-utils
		glxinfo
	

legacy nvidia graphics card

		apt install nvidia-glx-legacy-173xx nvidia-xconfig
		apt install nvidia-glx-legacy-96xx nvidia-xconfig
		nvidia-xconfig --no-composite
	

ATI graphics dual head

		# add to Device section of /etc/X11/xorg.conf
			Option "MergedFB" "true"
			Option "CRT2Position" "Below"
			Option "MergedXineramaCRT2IsScreen0" "true"
			Option "SWCursor" "true"
		# or duplicate Device, Monitor, Screen section of /etc/X11/xorg.conf, and in ServerLayout
			Screen 0 "0 screen"
			Screen 1 "1 screen" Below "0 screen"
			Option "Xinerama" "true"
	

ATI fglrx driver

		apt install linux-headers-3.2
		apt -t wheezy-backports install fglrx-legacy-driver
		aticonfig --initial=dual-head --xinerama=on
	

change screen resolution

		dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg # sets up dummy xorg.conf
		# add monitor frequencies to the monitor section
			HorizSync	31.5-64.3 # Sony Vaio PCG-SRX77
			VertRefresh	50.0-70.0 # Sony Vaio PCG-SRX77
			HorizSync	42.0-52.0
			VertRefresh 55.0-65.0
		# add in display mode to the screen section
			Subsection	"Display"
				Modes	"1024x768"
			EndSubsection
	

disable faulty radeon graphics modeset on boot

		vi /etc/default/grub
			# add nomodeset or radeon.modeset=0
	

disable svideo for intel vblank wait timed out

		vi /etc/default/grub
			kernel ... video=SVIDEO-1:d
	

display changes

	xrandr --query # list displays
	xrandr --output displays --mode 1024x768
	xset q # query settings
	xset s off # disable blank time
	xset -dpms # disable dpms

	

xwindows, desktop

install xwindows

		apt install xorg
			# Portege] PCI:0:4:0 /dev/psaux
			# Athlon] PCI:1:0:0 PCI:1:0:1 1280x1024 hsync:30-69 vsync:59-85
	

reconfigure xorg

		 dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg
		 dexconf
		 ctrl-alt-backspace
	

fluxbox desktop

		apt install fluxbox
			desktop style MerleyKay
			toolbar 100% autohide maximize_over
			slit autohide maximize_over
			.fluxbox/init strftimeFormat: %k:%M %d/%m/%y
			.fluxbox/init # point to local keys file
			.fluxbox/keys Mod4 m :RootMenu
			.fluxbox/startup # holds wm apps
			.fluxbox/slitlist # remembers order of wm apps
	

share keyboard and mouse between computers

		apt install synergy
			# on server
			# edit .synergy.conf
				section: screens
					host1:
					host2:
				end
				section: links
					host1:
						up = host2
					host2:
						down = host1
				end
				section: options
					switchDoubleTap = 500
				end
			# server start
				synergys
			# client start
				ssh host2
				ssh -f -N -L 24800:host1:24800 host1
				synergyc localhost
	

authorize xwindows access

		xhost +$REMOTE # or use xauth or use sux
	

monitoring applications in the slit

		apt install wmcpu wmnet wmbutton
		vi .fluxbox/startup
			wmcpu &; wmnet -w &; wmbutton &; fluxbox
	

send X output to null

		Xvfb :99 -screen 0 1x1x8 &
		DISPLAY=:99 application &
	

math applications

		apt install galculator # scientific calculator
		apt install octave octplot # equation evaluation
		#  octave 
			loading data files
				load a.out # data in a
			plotting
				plot(a)
			fft
				fa = fft(a)
	

antivirus

		sudo freshclam # update virus list
		clamscan file # virus scan
		rm /etc/cron.d/clamav-freshclam
	

create menu entry

		vi /usr/share/menu/app # standard desktop
		update-menus
		vi /usr/share/applications/app.desktop # for gnome
	

hide dotfiles in file dialog

		ctrl-H
	

play a video on the desktop background

		mplayer -rootwin -nosound -loop 0 -vf scale=1280 video.avi
	

selection pasting to xterm

		vi ~/.Xdefaults
			xterm*selectToClipboard: true
		xrdb -merge ~/.Xdefaults
	

force hires 1024x768 on startup on Toshiba 3500

		vi /etc/default/grub
			GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="vga=791 quiet"
			GRUB_GFXMODE=1024x768
		update-grub
	

fingerprint reader

		apt install fprintd libpam-fprintd
		fprintd-enroll username -f finger
	

text manipulation

editors and readers

		apt install vim-gtk
		apt install leafpad abiword abiword-help abiword-plugins # notepad, document editor
		apt install acroread xpdf-reader flpsed pdftk # pdf reader, annotation
		apt install wordnet # dictionary/thesaurus
		apt install xchm # compressed html reader
		apt install openoffice.org myspell-en-au
	

ereader formatting

		# use firefox
		about:config
			unwriteable-margin-bottom = 110
		letter paper
		size 150%
		ignore scaling
		headers and footers off
	

set default editor to vi

		ln -sf /usr/bin/vi /etc/alternatives/editor
	

strip carriage returns from file

		tr out.txt
	

edit hex in vim

		vim -b file.bin
		:%!xxd
		:%!xxd -r
	

digraphs in vim

		:digraphs
		ctrl-k a :
	

deleting empty lines in vim

		:g/^$/d
	

sort lines in vim

		:sort
		:sort u # unique lines
	

generate random string for password

		openssl rand -hex 8
	

manipulate pdf pages

		pdftk in0.pdf in1.pdf output out.pdf # join
		pdftk in.pdf 1-10 output out.pdf # select pages
		pdftk in.pdf input_pw password output out.pdf # decrypt
	

games

games

		apt install lmemory # memory
		apt install Xjig # jigsaw
		apt install gnugo gnuchess # go, chess
		apt install nethack # hack
		apt install sabre # flight simulator
		apt install supertuxkart # kart racer
		apt install planetpenguin-racer # skiing
		apt install gltron # Tron lightcycles
		apt install frozen-bubble # tetris style
		apt install pingus # lemmings
		apt install neverball neverputt # rolling ball
		apt install wesnoth # board strategy
		apt install codebreaker # mastermind
		apt install pioneers-server pioneers-client # Settlers
	

installing windows game

		# copy game to /usr/local/games
		# create desktop link in /usr/share/applications
		# create an xpm icon in /usr/share/pixmaps
		apt install icotools
			wrestool -l game.exe | grep icon
			wrestool -x -n MAINICON game.exe >game.ico
			gimp game.ico # save as xpm
	

bitcoin

		bitcoind --server # start server
		bitcoind-cli getinfo # get server status
		bitcoind-cli sendfrom user address amount # make payment
	

audiovisual multimedia

mixer

		apt install pavucontrol
	

test speakers

		aplay -L
		speaker-test -c2 -t wav
	

access patent encumbered repositories

		vi /etc/apt/sources.list
			deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org/ stable main
	

multimedia applications

		apt install mpg123 audacious
		apt install timidity fluid-soundfont-gm
		apt install vsound lame realplayer
		apt install vlc
		apt install audacity liblame0 mp3splt-gtk
			# configure libmp3lame.so.0
		apt install ripperx # CD ripper
		apt install xdvdshrink # DVD ripper and burner
		apt install libav-tools
	

change container format to mp4

		avconv -i input.ext -codec copy output.mp4
	

change codecs to x264

		avconv -i input.ext -c:v libx264 -strict experimental output.mp4
	

rip audio from flv

		mplayer -dumpaudio movie.flv -dumpfile movie.mp3
		ffmpeg -i in.avi -vn -acodec copy out.mp3
		ffmpeg -i in.avi -acodec libmp3lame -ac 2 -ab 160 out.mp3
		avconv -i in.flv -map 0:1 -c:a copy out.aac
		avconv -i in.flac -acodec libmp3lame -aq 2 out.mp3
	

combine audio back in

		ffmpeg -i video.mp4 -i audio.wav -c:v copy -c:a wma -map 0:v:0 -map 1:a:0 out.wmv
	

working with DVDs

		mpegdemux -d -s 0xe0 src.vob dst.m1v # ripping video from DVD vob
		mpegdemux -d -s 0xbd -p 0x80 --ac3 src.vob dst.ac3 # ripping sound from DVD vob
		ffmpeg -i src.mpg -async 1 -target pal-dvd dst.vob # create vob file from avi source
		ffmpeg -i src.vob -async 1 -target pal-dvd -map 0.0 -map 0.1 -b 5400000 -ab 448000 dst.vob # create vob file from avi source with parameters
		mplex -f 8 -o dst.vob src.m1v src.ac3 # multiplexing to vob
		# vlc to mpeg transport to capture DVD
		dvdauthor -x src.xml
			<dvdauthor dest="DVD">
				<vmgm />
				<titleset>
					<titles>
						<pgc>
							<vob file="movie.vob" chapters="0:00,10:00" />
						</pgc>
					</titles>
				</titleset>
			</dvdauthor>
	

rip svcd

		apt install vcdimager
		vcdxrip
	

rip dvd

		apt install dvdbackup libdvdcss2 genisoimage
		dvdbackup -M -i /dev/sr0
		genisoimage -dvd-video -o movie.iso folder
	

reencoding video

		apt install mencoder w32codecs
		ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/freefont/FreeSerif.ttf /usr/share/mplayer/subfont.ttf
		mencoder input.flv -ovc xvid -xvidencopts pass=2:bitrate=1150 -oac mp3lame -of avi -o output.avi #  encoding for video player 
		mencoder input.mp4 -ovc -vf scale=960:540 -ofps 30000/1001 xvid -xvidencopts bitrate=3000 -oac mp3lame -o output.avi #  encoding for Sprint 
		ffmpeg -i input.avi -b 1150k -s 320x240 -vcodec mpeg4 -r 30000/1001 output.avi #  encoding for youtube 
		#  mencoder options
			-vf scale=width:height
			-ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:vbitrate=2160000
			-nosound
			-ffourcc DX50
			-quiet
	

editing video

		apt install openshot
		# encoding for xvid
			avi
			libxvid, 3 Mb/s
			libmp3lame, 44100 Hz, 2 channel, 192 kb/s
		vi /usr/shared/pyshared/...
			# set progressive scanning if interleaved
	

cutting video

		avconv
			-i input.mp4
			-ss hh:mm:ss # start
			-t hh:mm:ss # length
			-codec copy
			output.mp4
	

capturing screen video

		xwininfo
		./slowdown.out # approximately 10 times
		recordmydesktop --full-shots --no-sound --windowid 0x00000000 --v_bitrate 1150000 --fps 3
	

play video at different frame rate

		mplayer -fps 30 video.ogv
	

identify DVD type

		dvd+rw-mediainfo /dev/dvd
	

burn DVD

		dvd+rw-format /dev/dvdrw # for rewritables
		growisofs -Z /dev/dvdrw -r -J $folder
	

record streaming files

		mplayer $2 -ao pcm:file=$1.pcm
		lame -m m -b 32 $1.pcm `date +%Y%m%d`$1.mp3
		rm $1.pcm
	

record streaming files

		mplayer $1 -dumpstream -dumpfile $2.rm
	

convert mp3 to wav

		mpg321 src.mp3 -w dst.wav
	

convert audio to ogg

		find . -name \*.m4a -exec sh recode.sh "{}" \;
			 vlc -I dummy "$1" --sout="#transcode{acodec=vorb,ab=256}:standard{access=file,mux=ogg,dst="\""$1.ogg"\""}" vlc:quit
	

video streaming

		gstreamer-properties # to set stream properties
		gqcam # to view camera
		ln /dev/video0 /dev/video # for applications that use /dev/video
		apt install stopmotion vgrabbj # stop motion animation
	

video streaming over network

		vlc --vlm-conf test.vlm --ttl 12 -I http --http-src /usr/share/vlc/http --http-host :8080 --rtsp-host :5554 # server
		vlc rtsp://ip_address:5554/test # client
		iceweasel http://ip_address:8080/vlm.hml # interface
		# vod command
			new test vod enabled input "test.avi"
	

downloading iview

		apt install python3 python3-gi bzr python-beautifulsoup libssl-dev python-simplejson
		# install rtmpdump from rtmpdump.mplayerhq.hu
		bzr branch https+urllib://jeremy.visser.name/bzr/python-iview/ python-iview
		# compile rtmpdump
		PATH=$PATH:path_to_rtmpdump ./iview-gtk
	

downloading BBC

		apt install get-iplayer
		get-iplayer #  get list of programs 
		get-iplayer --get number --output ~/ --partial-proxy http://194.28.8.139:3128
	

running jack, showing oscilloscope of playing sound

		apt install jackd1
		jackd
		alsaplayer -o jack file.ogg
		jack.scope -s
		vi .jack.plumbing
			(connect "alsaplayer-[0-9]*:out_1" "jack\.scope-[0-9]*:in_1")
		jack.plumbing
	

random generation from sound

		apt install randomsound
	

rotate video

		mencoder -vf rotate=1,mirror -ovc lavc -oac copy input.avi -o output.avi
		ffmpeg -i input.avi -vf transpose=1 -target pal-dvd output.vob
	

replace mp3 id3 tags with filename

		find *.mp3 -exec sh -c 'id3v2 -t $(basename {} .mp3) {}' \;
	

graphics

graphics packages

		apt install gqview libjpeg-progs gthumb
		apt install gimp gimp-help-en gimp-helpbrowser gimp-print
		apt install scribus scribus-template # publishing
		apt install openclipart-png openclipart-svg
		apt install dia # diagramming editor
		apt install inkscape python-xml # svg editor
	

scanning

		apt install sane sane-utils
		adduser user scanner
		# snapscan
			# add u176v042.bin from driver disk to /usr/share/sane/snapscan
			# set firmware line in /etc/sane.d/snapscan.conf
		# epson
			# use epkowa
			vi .sane/xscanimage/epkowa:libusb:XXX:XXX.rc # to edit resolution
		sane-find-scanner # find scanner device
		scanimage -L # check for access to scanner
		xscanimage # scan a page
	

capture camera

		mplayer -fps 1 -speed 0.1 -frames 10 -tv driver=v4l2 -vo jpeg tv://
	

batch scanning

		scanimage --help
		scanimage -d epson2 --wait-for-button=yes --batch=%.4d.pnm --mode Gray --depth 8 --resolution 150 -x 210 -y 297 --batch-start=1
		find . -name '*.pnm' -exec sh -c 'convert -quality 90 -normalize {} $(basename {} .pnm).jpg' \;
		convert -density 150x150 *.jpg dst.pdf
		convert -crop xsizexysize+xoffset+yoffset -resize xsizexysize input.jpg output.jpg
		find . -name '*.JPG' -exec sh -c 'convert -resize 50% -quality 90 {} $(basename {} .JPG).jpg' \;
	

image processing

		convert in.nef -crop wxh+x+y -colorspace Gray -level lower%,upper% -sharpen 0x1.0 out.jpg
	

screen snapshot

		xwininfo
		import -window id snapshot.jpg
	

panorama images

		# convert to 2:1 aspect ratio
		exiftool -ProjectionType="equirectangular" -Make="RICO" -Model="RICO THETA S" filename.jpg
	

image metadata

		exiftool -artist="name" -P -overwrite_original -m img.jpg
	

animated gif

		mogrify -crop widthxheight+xoffset+yoffset +repage *.png
		convert -layers OptimizeFrame -delay 10 *.png -loop 0 filename.gif
	

image stacking

		avconv -i input.avi -r 30 -f image2 %04d.tif # video to images
		align_image_stack -a prefix -i -C *.tif # align images
		enfuse -o output.tif *.png # stack images
	

acecad tablet device

		apt install xserver-xorg-input-acecad
		# add lines to /etc/X11/xorg.conf
			Section "InputDevice"
				Identifier "Tablet"
				Driver "acecad"
				Option "Device" "autodev"
				Option "Mode" "absolute"
			EndSection
			Section "ServerLayout"
				InputDevice "Tablet"
			EndSection
		# restart X
		# check log in /var/log/Xorg.0.log
		# setup in gimp->file->preferences->input devices
	

gimp plugins

		apt install libgimp2.0-dev
	

extract images from pdf files and join together

		pdfimages -j file.pdf "prefix"
		convert in.pbm out.png
		convert -rotate 90 in.png out.png
		convert -crop 2000x1500+100+100 in.png out.png
		convert -density 200x200 in.png out.png
		convert *.png out.pdf
	

montage of images

		montage -tile 2x4 -geometry 500x500 -background none inputimages output.jpg # proof sheet
		montage -geometry +0+0 inputimages output.jpg # retain resolution
	

increase image magick memory

		sudo vi /etc/ImageMagick-6/policy.xml
			# set memory resource size
	

plotting

		apt install gnuplot
		gnuplot
			plot "input.dat" using 0:1 with lines, "input.dat" using 0:2 with lines # plot comparative traces
	

download flash videos (youtube, vimeo)

		# open in player
		lsof +L1 | grep Flash
		cp /proc/pid/fd/fd video.mp4 # copy at end
		tail -c +0 -f /proc/pid/fd/fd >video.mp4 # copy while running
	

fix opengl hang with blank window

		vblank_mode=0 app
		vi /etc/drirc
			<driconf>
				<device>
					<application name="all">
					<option name="vblank_mode" value="0"/>
				</device>
			</driconf>
		# OR
		vi /etc/default/grub
			pci=nomsi
		update-grub
	

access digital camera

	gphoto2 --auto-detect
	gphoto2 --list-files
	gphoto2 --no-keep --get-all-files
	gphoto2 --capture-image
	gphoto2 --set-config datetime=now
	

languages and fonts

international fonts

		apt install ttf-gentium ttf-sil-charis ttf-sil-doulos
	

locales

		dpkg-reconfigure locales
	

sorting

		/etc/default/locale
			LC_ALL=en_AU.utf8
	

arabic support

		reconfigure xserver # lenny
			layout "us,ar"
			options "grp:caps_toggle,grp_led:caps"
		vi /etc/default/keyboard # squeeze
			XKBLAYOUT="us,ar"
			XKBOPTIONS="grp:caps_toggle"
		# keymap in /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols
		# Scheherezade and Lateef fonts from SIL
			# install in /usr/share/fonts/truetype
			apt install libft-perl
			defoma-hints -c --no-question truetype font.ttf >font.hints
			defoma-font register-all font.hints
	

japanese support

		apt install scim-anthy
		im-switch -c # set scim via scim-bridge
		# restart X session
		# use ctrl-space to switch
	

inserting unicode

		ctrl-shift-u ctrl-shift- # hold down ctrl-shift
		ctrl-V u hexcode # in vim
	

install latex xetex

		apt install texlive arabtex texlive-xetex texlive-omega texlive-latex-extra lmodern
		# if no access to xetex fmt
			fmtutil --enablefmt xetex # fixes access to xetex fmt
			fmtutil --enablefmt xelatex
		latex test.tex
		xdvi test
		dvips -o test.ps test
		xetex test.tex
		xpdf test
	

add latex sty

		mkdir /usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/newsty
		cp new.sty /usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/newsty
		texhash
	

truetype fonts?

		apt install xfstt
		FontPath "unix/:7101" in /etc/X11/XF86Config-4
		ctrl-alt-backspace
		apt install fontforge fontmatrix
	

installing ttf font

		cp font-folder /usr/share/fonts/
		fc-cache -vf
	

losslessly recompressing images

		pngcrush
		jpegoptim
	

package management

upgrading

		apt update # update package index
		apt dist-upgrade # upgrade packages
		apt autoclean # remove unavailable packages
	

mixed stable and testing distribution

		# add both stable and testing lines to /etc/apt/sources.list
		vi /etc/apt/apt.conf
			APT::Default-Release "stable";
		apt update
		apt -t testing install # package
	

downgrade to stable distribution

		vi /etc/apt/preferences
			Package: *
		Pin: release a=stable
		Pin-Priority: 1001
	

apt proxy

		apt install apt-proxy
		vi /etc/apt-proxy/apt-proxy-v2.conf
			# set up backend sections
		/etc/init.d/apt-proxy restart
		# on client machines
			vi /etc/apt/sources.list
				# use server:9999/section as the source
		apt update
		apt-proxy-update /var/cache/apt/archives
	

mount remote apt directory via ssh

		apt install sshfs
		sshfs host:/var/cache/apt/archives /var/cache/apt/archives
		fusermount -u /var/cache/apt/archives
	

mount remote directory via ssh through fstab

		ln -s /sbin/mount.fuse /sbin/mount.fuse.sshfs
		vi /etc/fstab
			server:/home/user /media/share fuser.sshfs user,noauto 0 0
		mount /media/share
		umount /media/share
	

create a local deb repository

		apt install dpkg-dev
		mkdir /var/cache/apt/altdeb
		cp package-file.deb /var/cache/apt/altdeb
		dpkg-scanpackages /var/cache/apt/altdeb	/dev/null | gzip > /var/cache/apt/altdeb/Packages.gz
		vi /etc/apt/sources.list
			deb file:// /var/cache/apt/altdeb/
		apt update
	

list installed packages

		dpkg --get-selections
	

upgrading to squeeze

		# install later kernel because of new udev
		# disk names hda->sda
		upgrade-from-grub-legacy
	

add GPG key (eg Opera)

		gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv F9A2F76A9D1A0061
		gpg --export --armor F9A2F76A9D1A0061 | apt-key add -
	

viewing library debug information

		apt install libname-dbg
		cd /usr/src/
		apt source libname
		objdump --prefix=/usr/src/ --prefix-strip=2 -S /lib/libname
	

fixing fstab after / mounted ro

		reboot to recovery
		mount -o remount /dev/sda1 /
		vi /etc/fstab
	

forcing broken dependencies

		dpkg -i --ignore-depends package.deb
		vi /var/lib/dpkg/status
			# remove broken dependencies
	

installation, kernel, devices

install Debian distro

		# Portege 3480ct] set up BIOS (F1)
		# Portege 3500] set up BIOS (Esc)
		boot from Sarge CD
		Debian mirror at ftp.iinet.net.au
		partition using Debian
		no desktop packages
	

build debian kernel

		apt install kernel-package ncurses-dev build-essential
		apt install linux-source-2.6.26
		tar xfj linux-source-2.6.26.tar.bz2
		ln -s /usr/src/kernel-source-2.6.26 /usr/src/linux
		bzcat ../patch-2.6.26-8-rt16.bz2 | patch -p1 # real time patches
		make clean && make mrproper
		make menuconfig # or oldconfig
		make-kpkg clean
		fakeroot make-kpkg buildpackage linux-image --initrd --append-to-version "-gmX"
		dpkg -i linux-image-2.6.26.deb
		apt install firmware-linux
	

backported debian kernel

		apt install -t lenny-backports linux-image-2.6.30-bpo.1-686 firmware-linux acpid
	

boot DSL from grub

		# loop mount the iso
		# copy the isolinux directory to /boot
		# copy the KNOPPIX directory to /
		# set up grub to point to linux24 and minirt24.gz
	

boot windows from second disk

		title Windows
		rootnoverify (hd1,0)
		map (hd0) (hd1)
		map (hd1) (hd0)
		chainloader +1
	

working with DOS formats

		apt install dosfstools
	

mounting floppy

		killall -9 udisks-daemon # squeeze daemon bug
		mount /media/floppy
	

adding and copying to new disk

		fdisk /dev/sdX
             c # turn off dos compatibility
			 n p # make primary partition
			 n e # make extended partition for swap
			 n l # make logical partition for swap
			 a 1
			 w
		mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdX1
		tune2fs -O ^has_journal /dev/sdX1 #  optionally disable journal 
		mkswap /dev/sdX5
		telinit 1 # or reboot in maintenance mode
		# mount sdX1
		cp -ax / /new-disk
		grub-install --root-directory=/new-disk /dev/sdX
		# update UUIDs in /new-disk/etc/fstab
			blkid /dev/sdX1 /dev/sdX5
		# switch disks
		# boot from command line
			linux (hd0,1)/vmlinuz root=/dev/sda1
			initrd (hd0,1)/initrd.img
			boot
		grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
		# update UUIDs in /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/resume
		update-initramfs -u
	

change swap volume

		blkid /dev/sda5 >>/etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/resume
		vi /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/resume
		update-initramfs -u
	

memtest boot disk

		apt install memtest86+
		ln -s /usr/lib/grub /lib/grub
		ln -s /usr/sbin/grub /sbin/grub
		make-memtest86+-boot-floppy
	

remove extra terminals

		vi /etc/inittab
			ctrl-alt-F1 ctrl-alt-F7
	

change magic key to shutdown instead of reboot

		vi /etc/inittab
		change ctrlaltdel shutdown line to -h instead of -r
		# remove unnecessary terminals
	

allow user to shut down

		addgroup shutdown
		adduser user shutdown
		chown root:shutdown /sbin/shutdown
		chmod 750 /sbin/shutdown
		chmod u+s /sbin/shutdown
	

allow user to shut down

		visudo
		# user] ALL=NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown
	

system clock using ntp

		apt install ntp # real-time updates
		vi /etc/ntp.conf
			server time.iinet.net.au
		apt install ntpdate # scheduled updates
		sudo crontab -e
			2 0 * * * /usr/sbin/ntpdate -s time.iinet.net.au
	

system testing

		apt install sysutils # bogomips, memtest, etc
	

setting up devices

		# add drivers
			cp *.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/mfr/
			depmod
		# set up nodes
			udevinfo -a -p /sysfs_path
			vi /etc/udev/rules.d/z60_mfr.rules
				KERNEL=="driver", NAME="devicename"
			udevtest /sysfs path
	

parallel port

		modprobe ppdev
		mknod /dev/parport0 c 99 0 -m 666
	

fixing irq problems (eg scsi)

		# add irqpoll to defoptions
		update-grub
	

prevent process hangup

		nohup command # run command without hangup
		disown -h pid # prevent hangup of pid
	

process monitoring

		/usr/bin/time -v application # report process statistics
		strace -c application 2>strace.out # summarize system calls
	

run a command from a different user context

		su -c "DISPLAY=:0.0 command" user
	

monitor logins

		less /var/log/auth.log
	

authentication of applications

		vi /etc/pam.conf
		vi /etc/pam.d/command
	

list process hierarchy

		pstree -p
	

power down usb port

		echo suspend >/sys/bus/usb/devices/1-2/power/level
		echo auto >/sys/bus/usb/devices/1-2/power/level
	

reset root password

		# on start, add init=/bin/bash
		mount -n -o rw,remount / # remount root
		# change root password
		sync
		mount -n -o ro,remount /
		reboot
	

boot chart

		apt install bootchart
		# grub
			init=/sbin/bootchartd
		bootchart
		geeqie bootchart.png
	

preserve MBR

		dd if=/dev/hda of=/mnt/sda1/mbr.img bs=512 count=1
		dd if=/mnt/sda1/mbr.img of=/dev/hda bs=512 count=1
	

cleaning up a system

		change root password
		remove users
		adduser smith
		purge /home/*
		rm /var/log/*.gz
		check /etc/network/interfaces
		check /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
		check /etc/shadow
		check root in /etc/aliases
		clean /etc/hosts
		change /etc/hostname
		root clear .bash_history, .ssh, .gnupg
		dd if=/dev/zero of=dummy.txt bs=4096
	

reducing disk access for SSD

		# turn off journal
		# set relatime,discard,commit=600 in /etc/fstab
		# remove swap from /etc/fstab
		# move /tmp and /var/tmp to memory in /etc/fstab
			tmpfs /tmp tmpfs defaults 0 0
			tmpfs /var/tmp tmpfs defaults 0 0
	

FAT 16 file system

		mkfs.fat -F 16 /dev/sdb1
	

live usb-hdd

		wget ftp://ftp.iinet.net.au/debian/debian-cd/current-live/i386/iso-hybrid/debian-live-X.X.X-i386-lxde-desktop.iso
		dd if=debian-live-X.X.X-i386-lxde-desktop.iso of=/dev/sdb
		gparted /dev/sdb
			# make ext4 partition with label persistence
		mount /dev/sdb2
		vi persistence.conf
			/ union
		# boot to usb-hdd, use persistence option
	

live usb

		# get hybrid ISO
		gparted
			# create FAT partition for ISO
			# create ext3 partition for live-rw
		# mount FAT partition
		unetbootin
		vi /media/sdb1/syslinux.cfg
			# add persistent flag to boot variables
	

faster boot

		apt install readahead; touch /.readahead-collect
	

rename user

		usermod -l newuser olduser
		groupmod -n newgroup oldgroup
		usermod -d /home/newuser -m newuser
	

network led

		apt install iptables-persistent
		iptables -A INPUT -j LED --led-trigger-id all --led-delay 50
		iptables-save >/etc/iptables/rules
		echo netfilter-all >/sys/class/leds/beaglebone\:green\:usr0/trigger
	

printing

cups installation

		apt install cupsys cupsys-client gs-esp cups-pdf cupsys-bsd hp-ppd
		http://localhost:631/admin
		# set hp1200 to socket://ip-address:9100
		# set pdf to color_ps, or use /usr/share/gs-esp/8.15/lib/ghostpdf.ppd
	

multiple page printing

		apt install mpage
	

printer sharing

		# set to shared from server settings
		cupsctl --share-printers
		# remote administration
		cupsctl --remote-admin
	

remove xprint

		apt --purge autoremove xprint-common
	

print to shared printer from windows

		# add network printer from another machine
		# url] http://ip-address:631/printers/queuename
	

set printer to reverse page order

		lpadmin -p CANON -o outputorder-default=reverse
	

fix Adobe plugin bug generating debuglog

		vi -b /opt/Adobe/Reader9/Browser/intellinux/nppdf.so
			:s/C:\\nppdf32Log\\/.\/.nppdf32Log./
	

files, storage and mounting

list available disks and partitions

		fdisk -l
	

mounting USB drive

		mkdir /media/usb1
		vi /etc/fstab
			/dev/sda1 /media/usb1 auto rw,user,umask=000,noauto 0 0
		mount /media/usb1
		umount /media/usb1
	

mount ISO file

		mkdir /mnt/iso
		mount -o loop -t iso9660 file.iso /mnt/iso
		umount /mnt/iso
		# or
		apt install fuseiso9660
		add-group username fuse
		fuseiso9660 src.iso mountpoint
		fusermount -u mountpoint
	

ripping ISO file

		dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso
	

erase disk

		dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx
	

check dd progress

		kill -USR1 $!
	

backup

		mount /media/usb0
		rsync /home/* /media/usb0/host -a --del -e ssh -v
	

drive testing

		dumpe2fs -b /dev/sda1 # list current bad blocks
		e2fsck -c /dev/sda1 # read test
		e2fsck -cc /dev/sda1 # read/write test
		apt install smartmontools
			smartctl -i /dev/sda # information
			smartctl -d ata -a /dev/sda # extended information
			smartctl -d ata -t short /dev/sda # short test
			smartctl -d ata -t long /dev/sda # long test
			smartctl -l selftest
	

force fsck on next boot

		tune2fs -c 1 /dev/sda1
	

allow laptop mode to turn off drive

		vi /etc/laptop-mode/laptop-mode.conf
			CONTROL_HD_IDLE_TIMEOUT=1
			LM_AC_HD_IDLE_TIMEOUT_SECONDS=300
			LM_BATT_HD_IDLE_TIMEOUT_SECONDS=300
			/etc/init.d/laptop-mode restart
	

allow hdparm to turn off drive

		vi /etc/hdparm.conf
			/dev/sda {
				spindown_time = 240
			}
		/etc/init.d/hdparm restart
	

check disk transfer rates

		hdparm -t -T /dev/sda
	

force fast ide (short 40 pin cable)

		vi /etc/modprobe.d/options
			options ide_core ignore_cable=0 # kernel 2.6.26
			options libata force=1.00:short40c # kernel 2.6.32
		update-initramfs -u
	

convert Nero nrg files to iso

		apt install nrg2iso
		nrg2iso src.nrg dst.iso
	

orphaned mounts

		vi /etc/mtab # and remove, not sure if this is kosher
	

packaging utilities

		apt install zip unzip
		apt install unrar
	

encrypting directory system

		apt install encfs
		addgroup username fuse
		encfs directory mountpoint
			# copy files into mount
		fusermount -u mountpoint
	

recursively set permissions

		chmod -R u=rwX,go=rX .
		# or
		find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;
		find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;
	

secure deletion and disk wiping

		apt install secure-delete
		sfill -lz /
	

encryption applications

		apt install mypasswordsafe
	

file management

		apt install xfe xtrlock filelight
	

mount root readonly

		telinit 1
		service rsyslog stop
		service network-manager stop
		killall dhclient
		mount -o remount,ro /
	

backup disk

		# mount root readonly
		dd if=/dev/sda of=host.img.gz
		fdisk -l -u host.img
		# something like mount -o loop,ro host.img XXX
	

managing MSDOS files

		apt install mtools
		mcopy
	

redirect both standard and error output

		command &>command.out
	

truncate a file

		dd if=/dev/null bs=1k seek=new size in KBi of=filename
	

disk quotas

		apt install quota
	

file creation times

		debugfs -R "stat " /dev/sda5
	

storing archives as readable filesystems

		apt install squashfs-tools
		mksquashfs /home/user dir.sqsh
		mount dir.sqsh /media/share -t squashfs -o loop
		fusermount -u /media/share
	

software raid

		apt install mdadm
		mdadm --create /dev/md0 -v --level=0 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2
		mkfs -t ext3 /dev/md0
	

upgrading from ext3 to ext4

		vi /etc/fstab # change to ext4
		# reboot into single user read only
		tune2fs -O extents,uninit_bg,dir_index /dev/sda1
		# reboot into single user read only
		e2fsck -fDC0 /dev/sda1
		# reboot
	

change reserved space

		tune2fs -m5 /dev/sdb1
	

monitor block reads/writes

		while true; do cat /sys/block/sda/stat; sleep 10; done
	

Adobe digital editions

		# mount ereader and note mount point
		# umount ereader
		winecfg
			# add ereader mount point as floppy drive Y
		wine digitaleditions.exe
			# register
			# drag and drop files
	

new uuid

		tune2fs /dev/sdb1 -U random
	

hard link duplicate files

		hardlink -s 64M -X -v .
	

image failed hard drive

		apt install gddrescue
		smartctl -l scterc,10,10 /dev/sdx # limit recovery time
		ddrescue -d -r3 /dev/sdx sdx.img sdx.map
	

changing partitions on loopback disk images

		kpartx -av disk.img
		ls -l /dev/mapper/loop0p* # dm to partition mapping
		ln -s /dev/dm-X /dev/loop0pY # mirror previous links
		gparted /dev/loop0
		kpartx -uv /dev/loop0 # update
		kpartx -d disk.img # disconnect
		rm -f /dev/loop0pX
	

splitting files

		split -b 2G -d filename filename.
		cat filename.* >filename
	

overlay filesystem

		mount -t overlay overlay -o lowerdir=lower/,upperdir=upper/,workdir=.working/ merged/
	

programming

install perl

		apt install perl perl-doc
	

java

		apt install j2re1.4 # deb ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/java-linux/debian/ stable non-free
		add path in opera # /usr/lib/j2se/1.4/jre/lib/i386
		run java once as superuser
	

java

		apt install sun-java6-bin sun-java6-fonts sun-java6-plugin
		update-alternatives --config java
	

avr

		apt install avrdude
	

install current libboost

		# download to /usr/src
		tar --bzip2 -xf boost*.tar.bz2
		./configure --with-libraries=date_time,thread
		make install
		mv /usr/local/include/boost_1-36/boost /usr/local/include
		rmdir /usr/local/include/boost_1-36
	

file differencing

		apt install meld
	

invoking a command in multiple directories

		find . -type d -exec bash -c 'cd "{}"; command' \;
	

hex dump

		od -A n -t x1 file.bin
		hexdump file.bin -e '"" 128/1 "%02X" "\n"'
	

mathcad

		LC_ALL=en_CA.UTF-8 wine /media/cdrom/SETUP.EXE
		apt install winetricks
		winetricks corefonts vcrun6sp6
		cp SYMBOL.TTF .wine/drive_c/windows/Fonts/
	

git

		# basic
		cd $DIRECTORY
		git init # create git repository 
		git add filename # track files 
		git commit -a -m 'message' # stage and commit 
		git remote add repository https://host/username/repository.git
		git push # push to remote
		# detailed
		git status # summary status
		git add -u # stage commit 
		git diff # unstaged changes 
		git commit -m 'message' # commit 
		git checkout -- . # discard changes
		git reset --hard branch # unwind back 
		git branch # show branches 
		git log # show commit log 
		git reflog # show head reference log
		git branch -D branch # delete branch 
		git push -u repository master # explict push to remote
	

sqlite

		sqlite3 database.sqlite
			.tables
			.schema table
			select * from table where field = 'value';
			select count (*) from table;
			^D
	

bash shortcuts

		sudo !! # sudo last command
		cmd !* # new command with previous arguments
		reset # reset terminal
		<esc> . # last argument
		^oldtext^newtext # rerun with replace
		<ctrl>-u <ctrl>-y # undo/restore command buffer
		<ctrl>-x <ctrl>-e # edit command
		<ctrl>-l # clear screen
		<ctrl>-r # search commands
		mv filename.{old,new} # change filename extension
		<alt>-<SysRq> r e i s u b #  reboot: raw, sigterm, sigkill, sync, ro mount, boot
	

serve current directory on http

		python -m SimpleHTTPServer # serve on port 8000S
	

monitor network activity

		lsof -i
	

sand boxes

screen

		apt install screen
		screen
		d # disconnect session
		c # new session
		p # previous session
		n # next session
		screen -ls # list screen sessions
		screen -r  # resume
		exit
	

windows in vmware

		# download vmware tar from www.vmware.com/products/players
		# does not work with 64 bit kernel
		apt install linux-headers-2.6-k7
		export CC=/usr/bin/gcc-4.1
		./vminstall.pl
			use headers from built kernel
		# create image files www.easyvmx.com
		# boot from floppy, fdisk/format, install from CD
		# download VMWare Tools windows.iso from Workstation/Server
		# mount as second cdrom, install video and mouse drivers
		apt install dbus # fixes /usr/lib/libhal.so.1 hang in libdbus, libdbus-glib
		# parallel port access
			adduser smith lp
			rmmod lp
	

windows in virtualbox

		apt install virtualbox-ose virtualbox-ose-modules-2.6-686 -t lenny-backports
		# if in repository
			apt install virtualbox-ose-modules-2.6-686 -t lenny-backports
		# otherwise
			apt install virtualbox-ose-source -t lenny-backports
			m-a unpack virtualbox-ose
			m-a auto-install virtualbox-ose
		# create virtual disks
		# install from iso mounted as CD
		# download VBoxGuestAdditions_1.6.6.iso
		# install guest additions from within guest operating system
		# make sure vboxdrv loads on startup
			vi /etc/modules
				vboxdrv
				vboxnetflt
		# otherwise
			vi /etc/default/virtualbox-ose
				LOAD_VBOXDRV_MODULE=1
			/etc/init.d/virtualbox-ose start
		# start the machine
			# select host interface to bridge the networks
			insmod vboxnetflt # solves bad module
			VBoxManage startvm virtualmachine
	

windows virtualbox images

		http://dev.modern.ie/tools/vms/linux
		vboxmanage clonehd disk.vmdk disk.vdi --format VDI
		adduser user vboxusers
		vboxmanage extpack install extpack.vbox-extpack
	

shrink virtualbox disk file

		# from client
			# defragment
			sdelete -z
		# from host
			vboxmanage modifyhd disk.vdi compact
	

clone virtualbox disk file

		VBoxManage clonevdi src.vdi dst.vdi
	

wine

		ln -s /media/share .wine/dosdevices/d:
		apt install fuseiso
		sudo adduser user fuse
		sh -c 'fuseiso /home/user/rom.iso /media/share;\
			wine "c:/Program Files/example.exe";\
			fusermount -u /media/share'
	

chroot

		mkdir chroot
		debootstrap stable chroot debian_repository
		chroot chroot /bin/bash